Democracy, inequality and the environment when citizens can mitigate privately or act collectively
We study the political economy of the environment in autocratic, weak and strong democracies when individuals can either mitigate the health consequences of domestic pollution privately or reduce pollution collectively through public policy. The setting is that of a small open economy in which incomes depend importantly on trade in dirty goods, where income inequality and the degree to which ordinary citizens exert voice in each dimension of the policy process distinguishes elites and ordinary citizens. The recognition that the health consequences of pollution can be dealt with privately at a cost adds an important dimension to the analysis of the political economy of environmental regulation, especially for an open economy. When private mitigation is feasible, inequality of incomes leads to an unequal distribution of the health burden of pollution (in accordance with the epidemiologic evidence), thus polarizing the interests of citizens in democracies and of ordinary citizens and elites in non-democratic regimes. Inequality in the willingness to bear the cost of private mitigation in turn interacts with the pollution costs and income benefits of trade in dirty goods to further polarize interests concerning both environmental stringency and the regulation of trade openness. In this context, we show how the eco-friendliness ranking of different political regimes varies with the cost of private mitigation and with the extent of income inequality, tending to converge when mitigation costs are high, and even producing a ranking reversal between democracies and autocracies, and between weak and strong democracies, when costs lie in an intermediate range.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: PO Box 450, Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5|
Phone: (613) 562-5753
Fax: (613) 562-5999
Web page: http://www.socialsciences.uottawa.ca/eco/eng/index.asp
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- List, John & Sturm, Daniel M, 2004.
"How Elections Matter: Theory and Evidence from Environmental Policy,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4489, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- John A. List & Daniel M. Sturm, 2006. "How Elections Matter: Theory and Evidence from Environmental Policy," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 121(4), pages 1249-1281.
- John A. List & Daniel M. Sturm, 2004. "How Elections Matter: Theory and Evidence from Environmental Policy," NBER Working Papers 10609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John List & Daniel Sturm, 2004. "How Elections Matter: Theory and Evidence from Environmental Policy," Natural Field Experiments 00482, The Field Experiments Website.
- John A., List & Daniel, Sturm, 2006. "How Elections Matter: Theory and Evidence from Environmental Policy," Discussion Papers in Economics 768, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Seema Jayachandran, 2008.
"Air Quality and Early-Life Mortality: Evidence from Indonesia's Wildfires,"
NBER Working Papers
14011, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Seema Jayachandran, 2009. "Air Quality and Early-Life Mortality: Evidence from Indonesia’s Wildfires," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2005. "Measuring the Restrictiveness of International Trade Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012200, March.
- James R. Markusen, 2010.
"Putting Per-Capita Income Back into Trade Theory,"
NBER Working Papers
15903, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Devashish Mitra & Vitor Trindade, 2005.
"Inequality and trade,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1253-1271, November.
- McKitrick, R. & Collinge, R.A., 1998.
"The Existence and Uniqueness of Optimal Pollution Policy in the Presence of Victim Defense Measures,"
1998-6, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
- McKitrick, Ross & Collinge, Robert A., 2002. "The Existence and Uniqueness of Optimal Pollution Policy in the Presence of Victim Defense Measures," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 106-122, July.
- Per G. Fredriksson & Eric Neumayer & Richard Damania & Scott Gates, 2005.
"Environmentalism, democracy, and pollution control,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
630, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Fredriksson, Per G. & Neumayer, Eric & Damania, Richard & Gates, Scott, 2005. "Environmentalism, democracy, and pollution control," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 343-365, March.
- Congleton, Roger D, 1992. "Political Institutions and Pollution Control," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(3), pages 412-21, August.
- McAusland, Carol, 2003. "Voting for pollution policy: the importance of income inequality and openness to trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 425-451, December.
- Rodrik, Dani, 1992. "Political economy and development policy," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(2-3), pages 329-336, April.
- Pethig, Rudiger, 1976. "Pollution, welfare, and environmental policy in the theory of Comparative Advantage," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 160-169, February.
- Brent Hueth & Tigran Melkonyan, 2009. "Standards and the regulation of environmental risk," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 219-246, December.
- Louis Hotte & Stanley L. Winer, 2008.
"The Demands for Environmental Regulation and for Trade in the Presence of Private Mitigation,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
2509, CESifo Group Munich.
- Louis Hotte & Stanley L. Winer, 2008. "The Demands for Environmental Regulation and for Trade in the Presence of Private Mitigation," Working Papers 0810E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Rosado, Marcia A. & Cunha-E-S , Maria A. & Ducla-Soares, Maria M. & Nunes, Luis C., 2006. "Combining averting behavior and contingent valuation data: an application to drinking water treatment in Brazil," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(06), pages 729-746, December.
- Corden, W.M., 1984. "The normative theory of international trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 63-130 Elsevier.
- Brooks, Nancy & Sethi, Rajiv, 1997. "The Distribution of Pollution: Community Characteristics and Exposure to Air Toxics," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 233-250, February.
- Clas Eriksson & Joakim Persson, 2003. "Economic Growth, Inequality, Democratization, and the Environment," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 25(1), pages 1-16, May.
- Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-74, September.
- Murdoch, James C & Sandler, Todd & Sargent, Keith, 1997. "A Tale of Two Collectives: Sulphur versus Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reduction in Europe," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 281-301, May.
- Matthew Neidell, 2009. "Information, Avoidance Behavior, and Health: The Effect of Ozone on Asthma Hospitalizations," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(2).
- Dasgupta, Susmita & Hamilton, Kirk & Pandey, Kiran D. & Wheeler, David, 2006. "Environment During growth: Accounting for governance and vulnerability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1597-1611, September.
- Torras, Mariano & Boyce, James K., 1998. "Income, inequality, and pollution: a reassessment of the environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-160, May.
- Jamie Pearce & Simon Kingham & Peyman Zawar-Reza, 2006. "Every breath you take? Environmental justice and air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 38(5), pages 919-938, May.
- Courant, Paul N. & Porter, Richard C., 1981. "Averting expenditure and the cost of pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 321-329, December.
- Hanna, Brid Gleeson, 2007. "House values, incomes, and industrial pollution," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 100-112, July.
- Per Fredriksson & Jim Wollscheid, 2007. "Democratic institutions versus autocratic regimes: The case of environmental policy," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 381-393, March.
- Kahn, Matthew E & Matsusaka, John G, 1997. "Demand for Environmental Goods: Evidence from Voting Patterns on California Initiatives," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(1), pages 137-73, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ott:wpaper:1007e. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Diane Ritchot)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.