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Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – New Evidence On Its Extent and Some Evidence On Its Causes

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Abstract

We present new evidence on de facto euroization in eleven Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. Estimates of the extent of foreign currency cash holdings are derived from survey data. Furthermore, we define overall euroization indices, relating both assets and cash holdings. Results confirm that some countries are heavily euroized and that euro cash holdings constitute a sizeable share of local currency in circulation. Euroization levels in other –mainly Central European– countries are low and economically insignificant. Evidently, high euroization bears various significant consequences for economic policies. Therefore, we inquire on the determinants of euroization. We find that euroization is highly correlated with the quality of past economic governance, reflecting past periods of instabilities. In contrast, the more recent –pre-financial crisis– course of economic history had only limited impact. Thus, our results are in line with the view that policy makers in highly euroized countries are severely constrained by past events and that euroization levels might be difficult to revert through stable macroeconomic policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2009. "Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – New Evidence On Its Extent and Some Evidence On Its Causes," Working Papers 159, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
  • Handle: RePEc:onb:oenbwp:159
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    2. John Duffy & Maxim Nikitin, 2004. "Dollarization Traps," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 196, Econometric Society.
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    7. Edgar L Feige, 2003. "Dynamics of Currency Substitution, Asset Substitution and De facto Dollarisation and Euroisation in Transition Countries," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 45(3), pages 358-383, September.
    8. Basso, Henrique S. & Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar & Jurgilas, Marius, 2011. "Financial dollarization: The role of foreign-owned banks and interest rates," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 794-806, April.
    9. Helmut Stix, 2008. "Euroization: What Factors drive its Persistence?," Working Papers 140, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    10. Eduardo Levy Yeyati, 2006. "Financial dollarization: evaluating the consequences," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 21(45), pages 61-118, January.
    11. Evan Kraft, 2003. "Monetary Policy under Dollarisation: The Case of Croatia," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 45(3), pages 256-277, September.
    12. Lebre de Freitas, M., 2004. "The dynamics of inflation and currency substitution in a small open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 133-142, February.
    13. Nicolo, Gianni De & Honohan, Patrick & Ize, Alain, 2005. "Dollarization of bank deposits: Causes and consequences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1697-1727, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Laszlo Csaba, 2011. "Financial institutions in transition: the long view," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 1-13.
    2. Helmut Stix, 2010. "The Euro as a Safe Haven Asset in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe," Chapters,in: The Euro and Economic Stability, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Edlira Narazani, 2013. "A Micro Level Perspective of Euroization in Albania," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 109, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    4. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2018:i:q1-18:b:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Thomas Scheiber & Caroline Stern, 2016. "Currency substitution in CESEE: why do households prefer euro payments?," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 73-98.
    6. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "Euro Cash in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 41-55.
    7. Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Rösl, Gerhard & Seitz, Franz, 2013. "Currency movements within and outside a currency union: The case of Germany and the euro area," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 393-401.
    8. Ivana Rajkoviæ & Branko Uroseviæ, 2014. "Dollarization of deposits in short and long run: evidence from CESE countries," Working papers 28, National Bank of Serbia.
    9. Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Rösl, Gerhard & Seitz, Franz, 2013. "Estimating the foreign circulation of banknotes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 165-167.
    10. Sandra Dvorsky & Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2010. "Real Effects of Crisis Have Reached CESEE Households: Euro Survey Shows Dampened Savings and Changes in Borrowing Behavior," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 79-90.
    11. Elisabeth Beckmann & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "Not So Trustworthy Anymore? The Euro as a Safe Haven Asset in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 65-71.
    12. Branko Uroševic & Ivana Rajkovic, 2016. "Dollarization of Deposits in the Short and Long Run: Evidence from CESE Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 5745, CESifo Group Munich.
    13. Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Why do people save in cash? Distrust, memories of banking crises, weak institutions and dollarization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4087-4106.
    14. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Andrea Mervar & James E. Payne, 2017. "The stationarity of inflation in Croatia: anti-inflation stabilization program and the change in persistence," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 45-58, February.
    15. Tomislav Galac, 2012. "Global Crisis and Credit Euroisation in Croatia," Working Papers 33, The Croatian National Bank, Croatia.
    16. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2012:i:2:b:4 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Elisabeth Beckmann & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "The Impact of Memories of High Inflation on Households’ Trust in Currencies," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 80-93.
    18. Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Why do people save in cash? Distrust, memories of banking crises, weak institutions and dollarization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4087-4106.
    19. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2011:i:4:b:4 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dollarization; Euroization; Currency Substitution; Survey Data; Central; Eastern; Southeastern; Europe; CEE; SEE;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance

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