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Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – New Evidence On Its Extent and Some Evidence On Its Causes

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Abstract

We present new evidence on de facto euroization in eleven Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries. Estimates of the extent of foreign currency cash holdings are derived from survey data. Furthermore, we define overall euroization indices, relating both assets and cash holdings. Results confirm that some countries are heavily euroized and that euro cash holdings constitute a sizeable share of local currency in circulation. Euroization levels in other –mainly Central European– countries are low and economically insignificant. Evidently, high euroization bears various significant consequences for economic policies. Therefore, we inquire on the determinants of euroization. We find that euroization is highly correlated with the quality of past economic governance, reflecting past periods of instabilities. In contrast, the more recent –pre-financial crisis– course of economic history had only limited impact. Thus, our results are in line with the view that policy makers in highly euroized countries are severely constrained by past events and that euroization levels might be difficult to revert through stable macroeconomic policies.

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  • Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2009. "Euroization in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe – New Evidence On Its Extent and Some Evidence On Its Causes," Working Papers 159, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
  • Handle: RePEc:onb:oenbwp:159
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    Cited by:

    1. Laszlo Csaba, 2011. "Financial institutions in transition: the long view," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(1), pages 1-13.
    2. Helmut Stix, 2010. "The Euro as a Safe Haven Asset in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe," Chapters, in: Ewald Nowotny & Peter Mooslechner & Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald (ed.), The Euro and Economic Stability, chapter 10, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Edlira Narazani, 2013. "A Micro Level Perspective of Euroization in Albania," wiiw Balkan Observatory Working Papers 109, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    4. Elisabeth Beckmann & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "Not So Trustworthy Anymore? The Euro as a Safe Haven Asset in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 65-71.
    5. Branko Uroševic & Ivana Rajkovic, 2016. "Dollarization of Deposits in the Short and Long Run: Evidence from CESE Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 5745, CESifo.
    6. Thomas Scheiber & Julia Wörz, 2018. "How are reduced interest rate differentials affecting euroization in Southeastern Europe? Evidence from the OeNB Euro Survey," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q1-18, pages 48-60.
    7. Stix, Helmut, 2013. "Why do people save in cash? Distrust, memories of banking crises, weak institutions and dollarization," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4087-4106.
    8. Thomas Scheiber & Caroline Stern, 2016. "Currency substitution in CESEE: why do households prefer euro payments?," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 73-98.
    9. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Andrea Mervar & James E. Payne, 2017. "The stationarity of inflation in Croatia: anti-inflation stabilization program and the change in persistence," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 45-58, February.
    10. Tomislav Galac, 2012. "Global Crisis and Credit Euroisation in Croatia," Working Papers 33, The Croatian National Bank, Croatia.
    11. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2012:i:2:b:4 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "Euro Cash in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 41-55.
    13. Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Rösl, Gerhard & Seitz, Franz, 2013. "Currency movements within and outside a currency union: The case of Germany and the euro area," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 393-401.
    14. Elisabeth Beckmann & Thomas Scheiber, 2012. "The Impact of Memories of High Inflation on Households’ Trust in Currencies," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 80-93.
    15. Ivana Rajkoviæ & Branko Uroseviæ, 2014. "Dollarization of deposits in short and long run: evidence from CESE countries," Working papers 28, National Bank of Serbia.
    16. Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Rösl, Gerhard & Seitz, Franz, 2013. "Estimating the foreign circulation of banknotes," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 119(2), pages 165-167.
    17. Lalouette, Laure & Zamora-Pérez, Alejandro & Rusu, Codruta & Bartzsch, Nikolaus & Politronacci, Emmanuelle & Delmas, Martial & Rua, António & Brandi, Marco & Naksi, Martti, 2021. "Foreign demand for euro banknotes," Occasional Paper Series 253, European Central Bank.
    18. Sandra Dvorsky & Thomas Scheiber & Helmut Stix, 2010. "Real Effects of Crisis Have Reached CESEE Households: Euro Survey Shows Dampened Savings and Changes in Borrowing Behavior," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 79-90.
    19. repec:onb:oenbfi:y:2011:i:4:b:4 is not listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dollarization; Euroization; Currency Substitution; Survey Data; Central; Eastern; Southeastern; Europe; CEE; SEE;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • D14 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Saving; Personal Finance

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