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The Dynamics of Currency Substitution, Asset Substitution and De facto Dollarization and Euroization in Transition Countrieses

  • Edgar L. Feige

    (The University Wisconsin-Madison)

This paper presents new evidence on the dynamics of dollarization and euroization for twenty-five transition countries. Estimates of the amount of foreign currency in circulation (FCC) in transition countries are used to develop a new comprehensive dollarization index (CDI) and separate indices of currency substitution (CSI) and asset substitution (ASI). When the CDI is compared to the traditional dollarization index (DI) that relies solely on foreign currency deposits as a proxy for the extent of dollarization, I find that the comprehensive dollarization measure provides a more complete picture of the extent of de facto dollarization and euroization, and that it better reflects the separate influences of currency substitution and asset substitution. I find that the dynamic evolution of currency substitution and asset substitution in transition countries is both more variable and complex than is usually believed to be the case. These new dollarization indicators enable researchers to examine the causes of the dollarization process and its tendency to lead to irreversibility (hysteresis). Moreover, the currency substitution and asset substitution indices shed light on the dynamic consequences of these processes for the effectiveness of monetary policy. Finally, the new estimates of FCC make possible the measurement of effective currency/deposit ratios that can be used to develop new estimates of the size and growth of underground economies in transition countries. Forthcoming Comparative Economic Studies, Fall, 2003

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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Macroeconomics with number 0305003.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: 05 May 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpma:0305003
Note: Type of Document - pdf; prepared on IBM PC ; to print on HP/PostScript pdf file; pages: 35; figures: included. 35 page pdf file with figures
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  1. Seitz, Franz, 1995. "The circulation of Deutsche Mark abroad," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 1995,01e, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  2. Edgar L. Feige, 2005. "The Underground Economy And The Currency Enigma," Macroeconomics 0502004, EconWPA.
  3. Feige, Edgar L., 1997. "Revised estimates of the Underground Economy: Implications of US Currency held abroad," MPRA Paper 13805, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Adam Bennett & Eduardo Borensztein & Tomás J. T. Baliño, 1999. "Monetary Policy in Dollarized Economies," IMF Occasional Papers 171, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Helmut Stix, 2001. "Survey Results about Foreign Currency Holdings in Five Central and Eastern European Countries," CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 2(3), pages 41-48, 02.
  6. Guillermo Calvo & Carlos A. Végh Gramont, 1992. "Currency Substitution in Developing Countries; An Introduction," IMF Working Papers 92/40, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Pablo E. Guidotti & Carlos A. Rodriguez, 1992. "Dollarization in Latin America: Gresham's Law in Reverse?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(3), pages 518-544, September.
  8. Edgar L. Feige & Michael Faulend & Velimir Sonje & Vedran Sosic, 2001. "Currency Substitution, Unoffical Dollarization and Estimates of Foreign Currency Held Abroad: The Case of Croatia," International Finance 0106001, EconWPA.
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