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The persistence of air pollution in four mega-cities of China

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  • Luis Alberiko Gil-Alaña
  • Carlos Pestana Barros
  • Zhongfei Chen

Abstract

This paper analyses long range fractional dependence of China pollution in four major cities, namely Beijing, Shangai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen from September 28 of 2013 to December 12 of 2015. Unit roots hypotheses are tested by using fractional integration methods using both uncorrelated and autocorrelated errors. The results reveal that the pollution is persistent, meaning that it will continue until strong anti-pollution measures are adopted. Policy implication is derived.

Suggested Citation

  • Luis Alberiko Gil-Alaña & Carlos Pestana Barros & Zhongfei Chen, 2016. "The persistence of air pollution in four mega-cities of China," NCID Working Papers 04/2016, Navarra Center for International Development, University of Navarra.
  • Handle: RePEc:nva:unnvaa:wp04-2016
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Smyth, Russell, 2013. "Are fluctuations in energy variables permanent or transitory? A survey of the literature on the integration properties of energy consumption and production," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 371-378.
    2. Cunado, J. & Gil-Alana, L.A. & de Gracia, F. Perez, 2005. "A test for rational bubbles in the NASDAQ stock index: A fractionally integrated approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 2633-2654, October.
    3. Luis A. Gil-Alana, 2003. "Testing of Fractional Cointegration in Macroeconomic Time Series," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(4), pages 517-529, September.
    4. L. A. Gil-Alana & P. M. Robinson, 2001. "Testing of seasonal fractional integration in UK and Japanese consumption and income," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(2), pages 95-114.
    5. Gil-Alana, L. A. & Robinson, P. M., 1997. "Testing of unit root and other nonstationary hypotheses in macroeconomic time series," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 241-268, October.
    6. Tanaka, Shinsuke, 2015. "Environmental regulations on air pollution in China and their impact on infant mortality," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 90-103.
    7. Gil-Alaña, L. A. & Robinson, Peter M., 2001. "Testing of seasonal fractional integration in UK and Japanese consumption and income," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 298, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Meraz, M. & Rodriguez, E. & Femat, R. & Echeverria, J.C. & Alvarez-Ramirez, J., 2015. "Statistical persistence of air pollutants (O3,SO2,NO2 and PM10) in Mexico City," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 427(C), pages 202-217.
    9. Barros, Carlos P. & Gil-Alana, Luis A. & Wanke, Peter, 2016. "Energy production in Brazil: Empirical facts based on persistence, seasonality and breaks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 88-95.
    10. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-142, March.
    11. Douglas Almond & Yuyu Chen & Michael Greenstone & Hongbin Li, 2009. "Winter Heating or Clean Air? Unintended Impacts of China's Huai River Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 184-190, May.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Chinese cities; pollution; unit roots; AR;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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