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Cordon pricing consistent with the physics of overcrowding

Author

Listed:
  • Nikolas Geroliminis
  • David Levinson

    () (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)

Abstract

This paper describes the modeling of recurring congestion in a network. It is shown that the standard economic models of marginal cost cannot describe precisely traffic congestion in networks during time-dependent conditions. Following a macroscopic traffic approach, we describe the equilibrium solution for a congested network in the no-toll case. A dynamic model of cordon-based congestion pricing (such as for the morning commute) for networks is developed consistent with the physics of traffic.Ê The paper combines VickreyÕs theory with a macroscopic traffic model, which is readily observable with existing monitoring technologies. The paper also examines some policy implications of the cordon-based pricing to treat equity and reliability issues, i.e. in what mobility level a city should choose to operate. An application of the model in a downtown area shows that these schemes can improve mobility and relieve congestion in cities.

Suggested Citation

  • Nikolas Geroliminis & David Levinson, 2008. "Cordon pricing consistent with the physics of overcrowding," Working Papers 000038, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:nex:wpaper:cordonpricingovercrowding
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/11299/179992
    File Function: First version, 2008
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. David Levinson & Ramachandra Karamalaputi, 2003. "Induced Supply: A Model of Highway Network Expansion at the Microscopic Level," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 37(3), pages 297-318, September.
    2. Pavithra Parthasarathi & David M. Levinson & Ramachandra Karamalaputi, 2003. "Induced Demand: A Microscopic Perspective," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 40(7), pages 1335-1351, June.
    3. Maruyama, Takuya & Sumalee, Agachai, 2007. "Efficiency and equity comparison of cordon- and area-based road pricing schemes using a trip-chain equilibrium model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(7), pages 655-671, August.
    4. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-260, May.
    5. Small, Kenneth A, 1982. "The Scheduling of Consumer Activities: Work Trips," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 467-479, June.
    6. Yang, Hai & Meng, Qiang, 1998. "Departure time, route choice and congestion toll in a queuing network with elastic demand," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 247-260, May.
    7. Yang, Hai & Huang, Hai-Jun, 1998. "Principle of marginal-cost pricing: how does it work in a general road network?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 45-54, January.
    8. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-179, March.
    9. Daganzo, Carlos F., 2007. "Urban gridlock: Macroscopic modeling and mitigation approaches," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 49-62, January.
    10. Geroliminis, Nikolaos, 2007. "Increasing mobility in cities by controlling overcrowding," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt5wg9j6z7, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    11. David Levinson & Andrew Odlyzko, 2007. "Too Expensive to Meter: The influence of transaction costs in transportation and communication," Working Papers 200802, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group, revised Feb 2007.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Mogens Fosgerau & André De Palma & Anders Karlstrom & Kenneth A. Small, 2012. "Trip timing and scheduling preferences," Working Papers hal-00742267, HAL.
    2. Fosgerau, Mogens & de Palma, André, 2012. "Congestion in a city with a central bottleneck," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(3), pages 269-277.
    3. Gonzales, Eric Justin, 2011. "Allocation of Space and the Costs of Multimodal Transport in Cities," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt7s28n4nj, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Fosgerau, Mogens & Small, Kenneth A., 2013. "Hypercongestion in downtown metropolis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 122-134.
    5. Liu, Ronghui & May, Tony & Shepherd, Simon, 2011. "On the fundamental diagram and supply curves for congested urban networks," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 951-965, November.
    6. Zheng, Nan & Waraich, Rashid A. & Axhausen, Kay W. & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2012. "A dynamic cordon pricing scheme combining the Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram and an agent-based traffic model," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1291-1303.
    7. Gonzales, Eric Justin, 2011. "Allocation of Space and the Costs of Multimodal Transport in Cities," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt07x7h9pg, University of California Transportation Center.
    8. Pavithra Parthasarathi & Anupam Srivastava & Nikolas Geroliminis & David Levinson, 2011. "The importance of being early," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 227-247, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cordon Pricing; Congestion Pricing; Road Pricing; Value Pricing; Social Equity;

    JEL classification:

    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

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