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Changes in Job Stability and Job Security: A Collective Effort to Untangle, Reconcile, and Interpret the Evidence

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  • David Neumark

Abstract

I synthesize and summarize a set of recent papers on changes in the employment relationship. The authors of these papers present the most up-to-date and accurate assessment of their evidence on changes in job stability and job security, and attempt to reconcile their evidence with the findings of other research, including the other papers discussed herein. Some of papers also begin to explore explanations of changes in the employment relationship. The evidence suggests that the 1990's witnessed some changes in the employment relationship consistent with weakened bonds between workers and firms. But the magnitudes of these changes indicate that while these bonds may have weakened, they have not been broken. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in the 1990's have not persisted very long. It is therefore premature to infer long-term trends towards declines in long-term employment relationships, and even more so to infer anything like the disappearance of long-term, secure jobs. The papers examining sources of changes in job stability and job security in the 1990's point to some potential explanations, including relative wage movements, growth in alternative employment relationships, and downsizing. However, with the possible exception of the first of these, this list does not encompass fundamental' or exogenous changes impacting the employment relationship, but rather to some extent suggests how various changes in the employment relationship may reinforce each other. Understanding the structural changes underlying empirical observations on changes in job stability and job security is likely to be a fruitful frontier for future research on the employment relationship.

Suggested Citation

  • David Neumark, 2000. "Changes in Job Stability and Job Security: A Collective Effort to Untangle, Reconcile, and Interpret the Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7472, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7472
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bansak, Cynthia A & Raphael, Steven, 1998. "Have Employment Relationships in the United States Become Less Stable?," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt7d04m8jx, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
    2. Unknown, 1998. "Discussion," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 651-652, October.
    3. John Haltiwanger & Marilyn E. Manser & Robert Topel, 1998. "Labor Statistics Measurement Issues," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number halt98-1, July.
    4. Dove E. Marcofte, 1995. "Declining job stability: What we know and what it means," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(4), pages 590-598.
    5. José Angulo & N. Cressie & C. Wikle & P. Soidán & M. Bande & C. Glasbey & John Kent & Ana Militino & Michael Stein, 1998. "Discussion," TEST: An Official Journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research, Springer;Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa, vol. 7(2), pages 283-285, December.
    6. Alec R. Levenson, 1996. "Recent Trends In Part-Time Employment," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 14(4), pages 78-89, October.
    7. Robert G. Valletta, 1996. "Has job security in the U.S. declined?," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue feb16.
    8. Chinhui Juhn, 1992. "Decline of Male Labor Market Participation: The Role of Declining Market Opportunities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 79-121.
    9. Anne E. Polivka & Stephen M. Miller, 1998. "The CPS after the Redesign: Refocusing the Economic Lens," NBER Chapters,in: Labor Statistics Measurement Issues, pages 249-289 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Unknown, 1998. "Discussion," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 619-643, October.
    11. Unknown, 1998. "Discussion," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 645-650, October.
    12. David Neumark & Peter Cappelli, 1999. "Do "High Performance" Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?," NBER Working Papers 7374, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Daniel Polsky, 1999. "Changing Consequences of Job Separation in the United States," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(4), pages 565-580, July.
    14. Diebold, Francis X & Neumark, David & Polsky, Daniel, 1997. "Job Stability in the United States," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 206-233, April.
    15. Lewis M. Segal & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1997. "Temporary services employment durations: evidence from state UI data," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues WP-97-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Hübler, Olaf & Kraft, Kornelius, 2008. "Flexibilisierungspotenziale bei heterogenen Arbeitsmärkten : eine Einführung (Potentials for increasing flexibility in heterogeneous labour markets : an introduction)," Zeitschrift für ArbeitsmarktForschung - Journal for Labour Market Research, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 41(2/3), pages 95-116.
    2. repec:iab:iabzaf:v:41:i:2/3:p:95-116 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Hornstein, Andreas & Krusell, Per & Violante, Giovanni L., 2005. "The Effects of Technical Change on Labor Market Inequalities," Handbook of Economic Growth,in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 20, pages 1275-1370 Elsevier.
    4. Lilia Costabile, 2002. "Riforme istituzionali ed esiti economici: l'evoluzione della "relazione d'impiego" e il ruolo del capitale umano specifico nell'esperienza italiana," Economia politica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 3, pages 349-362.
    5. Alicia H. Munnell & Steven A. Sass, 2007. "The Labor Supply of Older Americans," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College wp2007-12, Center for Retirement Research, revised Jun 2007.
    6. Friedberg Leora & Owyang Michael T & Sinclair Tara M, 2006. "Searching For Better Prospects: Endogenizing Falling Job Tenure and Private Pension Coverage," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-42, August.
    7. Nitsa Kasir & Idit Sohlberg, 2018. "The Impact of Supervision and Incentive Process in Explaining Wage Profile and Variance," Papers 1806.01332, arXiv.org.
    8. Bernhardt, Annette, 2014. "Labor Standards and the Reorganization of Work: Gaps in Data and Research," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt3hc6t3d5, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    9. Diewald, Martin & Eberle, Michael, 2003. "Unsichere Beschäftigung: Unsichere Integration? Auswirkungen destandardisierter Beschäftigung auf die Einbindung in Familie und soziale Netzwerke," Duisburger Beiträge zur soziologischen Forschung 1/2003, University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute of Sociology.
    10. Angelika Tölke & Martin Diewald, 2003. "Insecurities in employment and occupational careers and their impact on the transition to fatherhood in Western Germany," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 9(3), pages 41-68, September.
    11. repec:pri:cepsud:113krusell is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Stephanie Aaronson & Julia Lynn Coronado, 2005. "Are firms or workers behind the shift away from DB pension plan?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-17, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Hijzen, Alexander & Swaim, Paul, 2010. "Offshoring, labour market institutions and the elasticity of labour demand," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(8), pages 1016-1034, November.
    14. Marie Leclair & Sébastien Roux, 2007. "Productivité relative et utilisation des emplois de courte durée dans les entreprises," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 405(1), pages 47-76.
    15. Jeff Borland, 2002. "Perceptions of job security in Australia," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2002n16, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    16. Kandel, Eugene & Pearson, Neil D., 2001. "Flexibility versus Commitment in Personnel Management," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 515-556, December.
    17. Pouliakas, Konstantinos & Panos, Georgios & Zangelidis, Alexandros, 2009. "The Inter-Related Dynamics of Dual Job Holding, Human Capital and Occupational Choice," MPRA Paper 16859, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Borland, J. & McDonald, J.T., 2000. "Displaced workers in Australia 1984-1996: Macroeconomic Conditions and Structural Change," Papers 2000-10, Tasmania - Department of Economics.
    19. Angelika Tölke, 2003. "Insecurities in employment and occupational careers and their impact on the transition to fatherhood in Western Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2003-016, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    20. Avner Ahituv & Robert Lerman, 2011. "Job turnover, wage rates, and marital stability: How are they related?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 221-249, June.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J63 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Turnover; Vacancies; Layoffs
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

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