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Understanding Trends in Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States

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  • Lawrence F. Katz
  • Alan B. Krueger

Abstract

This paper describes and tries to reconcile trends in alternative work arrangements in the United States using data from the Contingent Worker Survey supplements to the Current Population Survey (CPS) for 1995 to 2017, the 2015 RAND-Princeton Contingent Work Survey (CWS), and administrative tax data from the Internal Revenue Service for 2000 to 2016. We conclude that there likely has been a modest upward trend in the share of the U.S. workforce in alternative work arrangements during the 2000s based on the cyclically-adjusted comparisons of the CPS CWS’s, measures using self-respondents in the CPS CWS, and measures of self-employment and 1099 workers from administrative tax data. We also present evidence from Amazon Mechanical Turk that suggests that the basic monthly CPS question on multiple job holding misses many instances of multiple job holding

Suggested Citation

  • Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, 2019. "Understanding Trends in Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States," NBER Working Papers 25425, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:25425
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Barry T. Hirsch & Muhammad M. Husain & John V. Winters, 2016. "Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-29, December.
    2. Abraham Katharine G. & Amaya Ashley, 2019. "Probing for Informal Work Activity," Journal of Official Statistics, Sciendo, vol. 35(3), pages 487-508, September.
    3. Katharine Abraham & John Haltiwanger & Kristin Sandusky & James Spletzer, 2017. "Measuring the Gig Economy: Current Knowledge and Open Issues," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Understanding Trends in Alternative Work Arrangements in the United States
      by maximorossi in NEP-LTV blog on 2019-12-18 13:21:18

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Munnell, Alicia & Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey T. & Walters, Abigail N., 2021. "How do older workers use nontraditional jobs?," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 374-392, July.
    2. Asad, Sher Afghan & Banerjee, Ritwik & Bhattacharya, Joydeep, 2020. "Do workers discriminate against their out-group employers? Evidence from the gig economy," ISU General Staff Papers 202002230800001098, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Datta, Nikhil, 2019. "Willing to pay for security: a discrete choice experiment to analyse labour supply preferences," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 103390, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    4. Lipovská Hana, 2019. "Alan Krueger: Worker in the Vineyard of Economics," Central European Journal of Public Policy, Sciendo, vol. 13(1), pages 46-49, June.
    5. Christopher Foote & Tyler Hounshell & William D. Nordhaus & Douglas Rivers & Pamela Torola, 2021. "Measuring the U.S. Employment Situation Using Online Panels: The Yale Labor Survey," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 2282, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    6. Tito Boeri & Giulia Giupponi & Alan B. Krueger & Stephen Machin, 2020. "Solo Self-Employment and Alternative Work Arrangements: A Cross-Country Perspective on the Changing Composition of Jobs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 170-195, Winter.
    7. Jason J Sandvik & Richard E Saouma & Nathan T Seegert & Christopher T Stanton, 2020. "Workplace Knowledge Flows," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 135(3), pages 1635-1680.
    8. Nikhil Datta & Giulia Giupponi & Stephen Machin, 2019. "Zero-hours contracts and labour market policy," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 34(99), pages 369-427.
    9. Bracha, Anat & Burke, Mary A., 2021. "How Big is the Gig? The Extensive Margin, The Intensive Margin, and The Hidden Margin," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    10. Christopher Foote & William D. Nordhaus & Douglas Rivers, 2020. "The US Employment Situation Using the Yale Labor Survey," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 2243, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    11. Nicholas Broten & Michael Dworsky & David Powell, 2019. "How Do Alternative Work Arrangements Affect Income Risk After Workplace Injury?," NBER Working Papers 25989, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Lenz, Fulko, 2020. "Plattformökonomie – zwischen Abwehr und Wunschdenken," Zeitthemen 03, Stiftung Marktwirtschaft / The Market Economy Foundation, Berlin.
    13. Olena Kostyshyna & Corinne Luu, 2019. "The Size and Characteristics of Informal (“Gig”) Work in Canada," Staff Analytical Notes 2019-6, Bank of Canada.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J81 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Working Conditions

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