IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/26271.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Integration Costs and Missing Women in Firms

Author

Listed:
  • Conrad Miller
  • Jennifer Peck
  • Mehmet Seflek

Abstract

Where social norms favor gender segregation, firms may find it costly to employ both men and women. If the costs of integration are largely fixed, firms will integrate only if their expected number of female employees under integration exceeds some threshold. Motivated by a simple model of firm hiring, we develop a methodology that uses the distribution of female employment across firms to estimate the share of firms with binding integration costs and counterfactual female employment at all-male firms. We validate our approach using administrative data and unique policy variation from Saudi Arabia. We provide suggestive evidence that integration costs reduce aggregate female employment. Using survey data on manufacturing firms in 65 countries, we find significant integration costs in the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia but not in other regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Conrad Miller & Jennifer Peck & Mehmet Seflek, 2019. "Integration Costs and Missing Women in Firms," NBER Working Papers 26271, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26271
    Note: DEV LS
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w26271.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jennifer R. Peck, 2017. "Can Hiring Quotas Work? The Effect of the Nitaqat Program on the Saudi Private Sector," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 316-347, May.
    2. Humphries, Jane, 1987. "“…The Most Free From Objection …†The Sexual Division of Labor and Women's Work in Nineteenth-Century England," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 929-949, December.
    3. François Gourio & Nicolas Roys, 2014. "Size‐dependent regulations, firm size distribution, and reallocation," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 5, pages 377-416, July.
    4. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Gerard A. Pfann, 1996. "Adjustment Costs in Factor Demand," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 1264-1292, September.
    5. World Bank, 2016. "World Development Indicators 2016," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 23969, December.
    6. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
    7. Leonardo Bursztyn & Alessandra L. González & David Yanagizawa-Drott, 2018. "Misperceived Social Norms: Female Labor Force Participation in Saudi Arabia," NBER Working Papers 24736, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Joseph G. Altonji & Todd E. Elder & Christopher R. Taber, 2005. "An Evaluation of Instrumental Variable Strategies for Estimating the Effects of Catholic Schooling," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(4), pages 791-821.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Seema Jayachandran, 2021. "Social Norms as a Barrier to Women’s Employment in Developing Countries," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 69(3), pages 576-595, September.
    2. Michael Lopesciolo & Daniela Muhaj & Carolina Ines Pan, 2021. "The Quest for Increased Saudization: Labor Market Outcomes and the Shadow Price of Workforce Nationalization Policies," CID Working Papers 132a, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    3. Monira Essa Aloud & Sara Al-Rashood & Ina Ganguli & Basit Zafar, 2020. "Information and Social Norms: Experimental Evidence on the Labor Market Aspirations of Saudi Women," NBER Working Papers 26693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Alessandra L. González, . "Insider’s advantage: when foreign firms do not capture opportunity in the local labour market," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Wilko Letterie & Øivind Anti Nilsen, 2016. "Price Changes - Stickiness and Internal Coordination in Multiproduct Firms," CESifo Working Paper Series 5701, CESifo.
    2. Jan Fagerberg & Bengt-Åke Lundvall & Martin Srholec, 2018. "Global Value Chains, National Innovation Systems and Economic Development," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 30(3), pages 533-556, July.
    3. Eibich, Peter & Siedler, Thomas, 2020. "Retirement, intergenerational time transfers, and fertility," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    4. Keller, Wolfgang & Utar, Hale, 2016. "International Trade and Job Polarization: Evidence at the Worker-Level," CEPR Discussion Papers 11311, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Adam Elbourne & Debby Lanser & Bert Smid & Martin Vromans, 2008. "Macroeconomic resilience in a DSGE model," CPB Discussion Paper 96.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    6. Michele Cantarella & Chiara Strozzi, 2021. "Workers in the crowd: the labor market impact of the online platform economy [An evaluation of instrumental variable strategies for estimating the effects of catholic schooling]," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(6), pages 1429-1458.
    7. Almeida, Alexandre N. & Bravo-Ureta, Boris E., 2019. "Agricultural productivity, shadow wages and off-farm labor decisions in Nicaragua," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 99-110.
    8. Dreher, Axel & Fuchs, Andreas & Langlotz, Sarah, 2019. "The effects of foreign aid on refugee flows," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 127-147.
    9. Kampelmann, Stephan & Rycx, François, 2012. "The impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity: Evidence from linked panel data," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 918-931.
    10. Maarten A. Allers & Corine Hoeben, 2010. "Effects of Unit-Based Garbage Pricing: A Differences-in-Differences Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(3), pages 405-428, March.
    11. Iseghohi Judith Omon, 2021. "Migrant Remittances and Health Outcomes in the West Africa Monetary Zones (WAMZ)," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 24(81), pages 15-32, September.
    12. Michelle Gosse & Siva Ganesh, 2004. "The gender pay gap and the importance of job size: Evidence from the New Zealand public service," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 101-118.
    13. Thomas Dohmen & Hartmut Lehmann & Anzelika Zaiceva, 2008. "The Gender Earnings Gap inside a Russian Firm: First Evidence from Personnel Data - 1997 to 2002 ; Updated Version," ESCIRRU Working Papers 6, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    14. Markus Brueckner & Ngo Van Long & Joaquin L. Vespignani, 2020. "Non-Gravity Trade," Globalization Institute Working Papers 388, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    15. Iga Magda & Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska, 2019. "Gender wage gap in the workplace: Does the age of the firm matter?," IBS Working Papers 01/2019, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych.
    16. Sami Napari, 2008. "The Early‐career Gender Wage Gap among University Graduates in the Finnish Private Sector," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 22(4), pages 697-733, December.
    17. Miguel A. Delgado & Jordi Jaumandreu & Ana Martín Marcos, 1999. "Input cost, capacity utilization and substitution in the short run," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 1(3), pages 239-262.
    18. Tanu M Goyal & Arpita Mukherjee, 2017. "Trade Agreements and Services Value Chain: The Case of India and Thailand," Applied Finance and Accounting, Redfame publishing, vol. 3(1), pages 11-23, February.
    19. François Rycx & Ilan Tojerow, 2004. "Rent-sharing and the gender wage gap in Belgium," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/785, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    20. Malerba, Daniele, 2020. "Poverty alleviation and local environmental degradation: An empirical analysis in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:26271. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.