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The Long-Run Effects of Disruptive Peers

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  • Scott E. Carrell
  • Mark Hoekstra
  • Elira Kuka

Abstract

A large and growing literature has documented the importance of peer effects in education. However, there is relatively little evidence on the long-run educational and labor market consequences of childhood peers. We examine this question by linking administrative data on elementary school students to subsequent test scores, college attendance and completion, and earnings. To distinguish the effect of peers from confounding factors, we exploit the population variation in the proportion of children from families linked to domestic violence, who were shown by Carrell and Hoekstra (2010, 2012) to disrupt contemporaneous behavior and learning. Results show that exposure to a disruptive peer in classes of 25 during elementary school reduces earnings at age 26 by 3 to 4 percent. We estimate that differential exposure to children linked to domestic violence explains 5 to 6 percent of the rich-poor earnings gap in our data, and that removing one disruptive peer from a classroom for one year would raise the present discounted value of classmates' future earnings by $100,000.

Suggested Citation

  • Scott E. Carrell & Mark Hoekstra & Elira Kuka, 2016. "The Long-Run Effects of Disruptive Peers," NBER Working Papers 22042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:22042
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    1. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Nathaniel Hilger & Emmanuel Saez & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach & Danny Yagan, 2011. "How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project Star," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1593-1660.
    2. Scott E. Carrell & Mark Hoekstra, 2012. "Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(4), pages 861-875, September.
    3. Caroline M. Hoxby, 2000. "The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1239-1285.
    4. Jens Ludwig & Douglas L. Miller, 2007. "Does Head Start Improve Children's Life Chances? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Design," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(1), pages 159-208.
    5. Scott E. Carrell & Mark L. Hoekstra, 2010. "Externalities in the Classroom: How Children Exposed to Domestic Violence Affect Everyone's Kids," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 211-228, January.
    6. Susan Dynarski & Joshua Hyman & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, 2013. "Experimental Evidence on the Effect of Childhood Investments on Postsecondary Attainment and Degree Completion," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(4), pages 692-717, September.
    7. Krueger, Alan B & Whitmore, Diane M, 2001. "The Effect of Attending a Small Class in the Early Grades on College-Test Taking and Middle School Test Results: Evidence from Project STAR," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(468), pages 1-28, January.
    8. Massimo Anelli & Giovanni Peri, 2015. "Peers’ Composition Effects in the Short and in the Long Run: College Major, College Performance and Income," Working Papers 078, "Carlo F. Dondena" Centre for Research on Social Dynamics (DONDENA), Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi.
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard Murphy & Felix Weinhardt, 2014. "Top of the Class: The Importance of Ordinal Rank," CESifo Working Paper Series 4815, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Matthew P. Steinberg & Johanna Lacoe, "undated". "What Do We Know About School Discipline Reform?," Mathematica Policy Research Reports bb8f344e86e04bbf83582db66, Mathematica Policy Research.
    3. Maria Micaela Sviatschi, 2018. "Making a Narco: Childhood Exposure to Illegal Labor Markets and Criminal Life Paths," Working Papers 2018-03, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
    4. Olivetti, Claudia & Patacchini, Eleonora & Zenou, Yves, 2019. "Mothers, Peers and Gender-Role Identity," Working Paper Series 1295, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    5. Bratti, Massimiliano & Conti, Maurizio & Sulis, Giovanni, 2019. "Employment Protection and Firm-provided Training: Quasi-experimental Evidence from a Labour Market Reform," GLO Discussion Paper Series 368, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Luca Paolo Merlino & Max Friedrich Steinhardt & Liam Wren-Lewis, 2019. "More than Just Friends? School Peers and Adult Interracial Relationships," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(3), pages 663-713.
    7. Bart H.H. Golsteyn & Arjan Non & Ulf Zölitz, 2017. "The impact of peer personality on academic achievement," ECON - Working Papers 269, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
    8. repec:eee:labeco:v:55:y:2018:i:c:p:178-214 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Cools, Angela & Fernández, Raquel & Patacchini, Eleonora, 2019. "Girls, Boys, and High Achievers," CEPR Discussion Papers 13754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Bryan Stuart, 2017. "The Long-Run Effects of Recessions on Education and Income," Working Papers 2017-25, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    11. Ahn, Tom & Trogdon, Justin G., 2017. "Peer delinquency and student achievement in middle school," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 192-217.
    12. Sanni N. Breining & Joseph J. Doyle, Jr. & David N. Figlio & Krzysztof Karbownik & Jeffrey Roth, 2017. "Birth Order and Delinquency: Evidence from Denmark and Florida," NBER Working Papers 23038, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Anne Ardila Brenøe & Ulf Zölitz, 2018. "Exposure to more female peers widens the gender gap in STEM participation," ECON - Working Papers 285, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
    14. Anelli, Massimo & Shih, Kevin Y. & Williams, Kevin, 2017. "Foreign Peer Effects and STEM Major Choice," IZA Discussion Papers 10743, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Cools, Angela & Fernández, Raquel & Patacchini, Eleonora, 2019. "Girls, Boys, and High Achievers," IZA Discussion Papers 12314, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    16. Lovén, Ida, 2017. "Labor market consequences of growing up with a sibling with type 1-diabetes," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 1-10.
    17. Bos, María Soledad & Vegas, Emiliana, 2017. "The Consequences of Educational Voucher Reform in Chile," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 8491, Inter-American Development Bank.
    18. Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anna & Terskaya, Anastasia, 2018. "Independent Thinking and Hard Working, or Caring and Well Behaved? Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Gender Identity Norms," IZA Discussion Papers 11694, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Fritz Schiltz & Deni Mazrekaj & Daniel Horn & Kristof De Witte, 2018. "Does It Matter When Your Smartest Peers Leave Your Class? Evidence from Hungary," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1804, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    20. Angela Cools & Raquel Fernandez & Eleonora Patacchini, 2019. "Girls, Boys, and High Achievers," Working Papers 2019-032, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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