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A Phillips Curve with Anchored Expectations and Short-Term Unemployment

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  • Laurence Ball
  • Sandeep Mazumder

Abstract

This paper examines the recent behavior of core inflation in the United States. We specify a simple Phillips curve based on the assumptions that inflation expectations are fully anchored at the Federal Reserve’s target, and that labor-market slack is captured by the level of short-term unemployment. This equation explains inflation behavior since 2000, including the failure of high total unemployment since 2008 to reduce inflation greatly. The fit of our equation is especially good when we measure core inflation with the Cleveland Fed’s series on weighted median inflation. We also propose a more general Phillips curve in which core inflation depends on short-term unemployment and on expected inflation as measured by the Survey of Professional Forecasters. This specification fits U.S. inflation since 1985, including both the anchored-expectations period of the 2000s and the preceding period when expectations were determined by past levels of inflation.

Suggested Citation

  • Laurence Ball & Sandeep Mazumder, 2014. "A Phillips Curve with Anchored Expectations and Short-Term Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 20715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:20715
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Simon Gilchrist & Raphael Schoenle & Jae W. Sim & Egon Zakrajsek, 2015. "Inflation dynamics during the financial crisis," FRB Atlanta CQER Working Paper 2015-4, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, revised 01 Nov 2015.
    2. Murphy, Robert G., 2014. "Explaining inflation in the aftermath of the Great Recession," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 228-244.
    3. Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2015. "Is the Phillips Curve Alive and Well after All? Inflation Expectations and the Missing Disinflation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 197-232, January.
    4. Laurence Ball & Sandeep Mazumder, 2011. "Inflation Dynamics and the Great Recession," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(1 (Spring), pages 337-405.
    5. Alan B. Krueger & Judd Cramer & David Cho, 2014. "Are the Long-Term Unemployed on the Margins of the Labor Market?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 45(1 (Spring), pages 229-299.
    6. Jordi Galí, 2008. "Introduction to Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Keynesian Framework," Introductory Chapters, in: Monetary Policy, Inflation, and the Business Cycle: An Introduction to the New Keynesian Framework, Princeton University Press.
    7. Simon Gilchrist & Raphael Schoenle & Jae Sim & Egon Zakrajšek, 2017. "Inflation Dynamics during the Financial Crisis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(3), pages 785-823, March.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The Phillips Curve and Inflation
      by thebusinesscycleblog in The business cycle blog on 2016-05-21 23:08:29

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Miguel Saldarriaga & Pablo del Aguila & Kevin Gershy-Damet, 2017. "Has inflation targeting anchored inflation expectations? Evidence from Peru," Working Papers 2017-103, Peruvian Economic Association.
    2. Laurence Ball & Anusha Chari & Prachi Mishra, 2016. "Understanding Inflation in India," NBER Working Papers 22948, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Aguiar-Conraria, Luís & Martins, Manuel M. F. & Soares, Maria Joana, 2019. "The Phillips Curve at 60: time for time and frequency," Research Discussion Papers 12/2019, Bank of Finland.
    4. Robert G. Murphy, 2019. "Can the Phillips Curve Explain Inflation over the Past Half-Century?," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 25(2), pages 137-149, May.
    5. Günes Kamber & Madhusudan Mohanty & James Morley, 2020. "What drives inflation in advanced and emerging market economies?," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Inflation dynamics in Asia and the Pacific, volume 111, pages 21-36, Bank for International Settlements.
    6. Consolo, Agostino & Da Silva, António Dias, 2019. "The euro area labour market through the lens of the Beveridge curve," Economic Bulletin Articles, European Central Bank, vol. 4.
    7. Saten Kumar & Hassan Afrouzi & Olivier Coibion & Yuriy Gorodnichenko, 2015. "Inflation Targeting Does Not Anchor Inflation Expectations: Evidence from Firms in New Zealand," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 46(2 (Fall)), pages 151-225.
    8. William D. Craighead, 2019. "Hysteresis In A New Keynesian Model," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 57(2), pages 1082-1097, April.
    9. Ernst, Ekkehard & Semmler, Willi & Haider, Alexander, 2017. "Debt-deflation, financial market stress and regime change – Evidence from Europe using MRVAR," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 115-139.
    10. Antonio M. Conti & Concetta Gigante, 2018. "Weakness in Italy’s core inflation and the Phillips curve: the role of labour and financial indicators," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 466, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    11. Eric Hillebrand & Manuel Lukas & Wei Wei, 2020. "Bagging Weak Predictors," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 16/20, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
    12. Mazumder, Sandeep, 2018. "Inflation in Europe after the Great Recession," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 202-213.
    13. Rafi Melnick & Till Strohsal, 2016. "Disinflation and the Phillips Curve: Israel 1986-2015," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2016-039, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    14. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2019. "Slack and Cyclically Sensitive Inflation," NBER Working Papers 25987, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Melnick, Rafi & Strohsal, Till, 2017. "Disinflation in steps and the Phillips curve: Israel 1986–2015," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 145-161.
    16. López-Salido, J David & Loria, Francesca, 2019. "Inflation at Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 14074, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation

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