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Reserve Requirement Policy over the Business Cycle

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  • Pablo Federico
  • Carlos A. Vegh
  • Guillermo Vuletin

Abstract

Based on a novel quarterly dataset for 52 countries for the period 1970-2011, we analyze the use and cyclical properties of reserve requirements (RR) as a macroeconomic stabilization tool and whether RR policy substitutes or complements monetary policy. We find that (i) around two thirds of developing countries have used RR policy as a macroeconomic stabilization tool compared to just one third of industrial countries (and no industrial country since 2004); (ii) most developing countries that rely on RR use them countercyclically; and (iii) in many developing countries, monetary policy is procyclical and hence RR policy has substituted monetary policy as a countercyclical tool. We interpret the latter finding as reflecting the need of many emerging markets to raise interest rates in bad times to defend the currency and not raise or lower the interest rate in good times to prevent further currency appreciation. Under these circumstances, RR policy provides a second instrument that substitutes for monetary policy. Evidence from expanded Taylor rules (i.e., Taylor rules that include a nominal exchange rate target) supports these mechanisms.

Suggested Citation

  • Pablo Federico & Carlos A. Vegh & Guillermo Vuletin, 2014. "Reserve Requirement Policy over the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 20612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:20612
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    1. Carlos Montoro & Ramon Moreno, 2011. "The use of reserve requirements as a policy instrument in Latin America," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    2. Claessens, Stijn & Ghosh, Swati R. & Mihet, Roxana, 2013. "Macro-prudential policies to mitigate financial system vulnerabilities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 153-185.
    3. Carlos A. Vegh & Guillermo Vuletin, 2013. "Overcoming the Fear of Free Falling: Monetary Policy Graduation in Emerging Markets," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Role of Central Banks in Financial Stability How Has It Changed?, chapter 6, pages 105-129 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    6. Renzo Rossini & Zenon Quispe & Donita Rodriguez, 2011. "Capital flows, monetary policy and forex intervention in Peru," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Capital flows, commodity price movements and foreign exchange intervention, volume 57, pages 261-274 Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Hernando Vargas Herrera & Yanneth R Betancourt & Carlos Varela & Norberto Rodriguez, 2011. "Effects of reserve requirements in an inflation targeting regime: the case of Colombia," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The global crisis and financial intermediation in emerging market economies, volume 54, pages 133-169 Bank for International Settlements.
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    Cited by:

    1. Eugenio Cerutti & Ricardo Correa & Elisabetta Fiorentino & Esther Segalla, 2017. "Changes in Prudential Policy Instruments - A New Cross-Country Database," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(2), pages 477-503, March.
    2. repec:mtp:titles:0262037165 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. D'Orazio, Paola & Popoyan, Lilit, 2018. "Fostering green investments and tackling climate-related financial risks: Which role for macroprudential policies?," Ruhr Economic Papers 778, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    4. Glocker, Christian & Towbin, Pascal, 2015. "Reserve requirements as a macroprudential instrument – Empirical evidence from Brazil," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 158-176.
    5. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Alper, Koray & Pereira da Silva, Luiz, 2018. "External shocks, financial volatility and reserve requirements in an open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 23-43.
    6. Fendoğlu, Salih, 2017. "Credit cycles and capital flows: Effectiveness of the macroprudential policy framework in emerging market economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 110-128.
    7. repec:aoj:ajeaer:2018:p:99-111 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Michael Brei & Ramon Moreno, 2018. "Reserve requirements and capital flows in Latin America," BIS Working Papers 741, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Esteban Gómez & Angélica Lizarazo & Juan Carlos Mendoza & Andrés Murcia, 2017. "Evaluating the Impact of Macroprudential Policies in Colombia's Credit Growth," Borradores de Economia 980, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    10. repec:bla:reviec:v:25:y:2017:i:5:p:990-998 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Klingelhöfer, Jan & Sun, Rongrong, 2017. "Macroprudential Policy, Central Banks and Financial Stability: Evidence from China," MPRA Paper 79033, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. repec:wly:jmoncb:v:50:y:2018:i:4:p:817-827 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "What Do We Know About the Effects of Macroprudential Policy?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 85(340), pages 735-770, October.
    14. Koray Alper & Mahir Binici & Selva Demiralp & Hakan Kara & Pinar ÖZlãœ, 2018. "Reserve Requirements, Liquidity Risk, and Bank Lending Behavior," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 50(4), pages 817-827, June.
    15. Esteban Gómez & Angélica Lizarazo & Juan Carlos Mendoza & Andrés Murcia Pabón, 2017. "Evaluating the impact of macroprudential policies on credit growth in Colombia," BIS Working Papers 634, Bank for International Settlements.
    16. van Holle, Frederiek, 2017. "Essays in empirical finance and monetary policy," Other publications TiSEM 30d11a4b-7bc9-4c81-ad24-5, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    17. Akturk, Halit & Gocen, Hasan & Duran, Suleyman, 2015. "Money Multiplier under Reserve Option Mechanism," MPRA Paper 64803, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics

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