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Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets

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  • Andrew Ang
  • Dimitris Papanikolaou
  • Mark Westerfield

Abstract

We present a model of optimal allocation over liquid and illiquid assets, where illiquidity is the restriction that an asset cannot be traded for intervals of uncertain duration. Illiquidity leads to increased and state-dependent risk aversion, and reduces the allocation to both liquid and illiquid risky assets. Uncertainty about the length of the illiquidity interval, as opposed to a deterministic non-trading interval, is a primary determinant of the cost of illiquidity. We allow market liquidity to vary from `normal' periods, when all assets are fully liquid, to 'illiquidity crises,' when some assets can only be traded infrequently. The possibility of a liquidity crisis leads to limited arbitrage in normal times. Investors are willing to forego 2% of their wealth to hedge against illiquidity crises occurring once every ten years.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew Ang & Dimitris Papanikolaou & Mark Westerfield, 2013. "Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets," NBER Working Papers 19436, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19436
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    Cited by:

    1. Arthur Korteweg & Roman Kräussl & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2016. "Does it Pay to Invest in Art? A Selection-Corrected Returns Perspective," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(4), pages 1007-1038.
    2. Salvatore Federico & Paul Gassiat & Fausto Gozzi, 2017. "Impact Of Time Illiquidity In A Mixed Market Without Full Observation," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(2), pages 401-437, April.
    3. Csóka, Péter & Bihary, Zsolt & Kondor, Gábor, 2018. "A részvénytartás spektrális kockázata hosszú távon [On the spectral measure of risk in holding stocks in the long run]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(7), pages 687-700.
    4. Campanale, Claudio & Fugazza, Carolina & Gomes, Francisco, 2015. "Life-cycle portfolio choice with liquid and illiquid financial assets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 67-83.
    5. David Chambers & Elroy Dimson & Justin Foo, 2013. "Keynes, King's, and Endowment Asset Management," NBER Chapters, in: How the Financial Crisis and Great Recession Affected Higher Education, pages 127-150, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Saad, Mohsen & Samet, Anis, 2017. "Liquidity and the implied cost of equity capital," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 15-38.
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    9. Campanale, Claudio & Fugazza, Carolina & Gomes, Francisco J, 2015. "Life-Cycle Portfolio choice with Liquid and Illiquid Assets," CEPR Discussion Papers 10369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    14. Chongyu Wang & Jeffrey P. Cohen & John L. Glascock, 2019. "Geographic Proximity and Competition for Scarce Capital: Evidence from U.S. REITs," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 22(4), pages 535-570.
    15. DeLisle, R. Jared & McTier, Brian C. & Smedema, Adam R., 2016. "Systematic limited arbitrage and the cross-section of stock returns: Evidence from exchange traded funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 118-136.
    16. Morten Sorensen & Neng Wang & Jinqiang Yang, 2014. "Valuing Private Equity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(7), pages 1977-2021.
    17. Salvatore Federico & Paul Gassiat, 2014. "Viscosity Characterization of the Value Function of an Investment-Consumption Problem in Presence of an Illiquid Asset," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, Springer, vol. 160(3), pages 966-991, March.
    18. Ali Al-Aradi & Sebastian Jaimungal, 2018. "Outperformance and Tracking: Dynamic Asset Allocation for Active and Passive Portfolio Management," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(3), pages 268-294, May.
    19. Joenväärä, Juha & Kosowski, Robert & Tolonen, Pekka, 2018. "The Effect of Investment Constraints on Hedge Fund Investor Returns," CEPR Discussion Papers 12599, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Dirk Broeders & Kristy Jansen & Bas Werker, 2017. "Pension fund's illiquid assets allocation under liquidity and capital constraints," DNB Working Papers 555, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    21. repec:luc:wpaper:13-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Frydman, Cary & Rangel, Antonio, 2014. "Debiasing the disposition effect by reducing the saliency of information about a stock's purchase price," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 107(PB), pages 541-552.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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