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Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets

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  • Andrew Ang
  • Dimitris Papanikolaou
  • Mark Westerfield

Abstract

We present a model of optimal allocation over liquid and illiquid assets, where illiquidity is the restriction that an asset cannot be traded for intervals of uncertain duration. Illiquidity leads to increased and state-dependent risk aversion, and reduces the allocation to both liquid and illiquid risky assets. Uncertainty about the length of the illiquidity interval, as opposed to a deterministic non-trading interval, is a primary determinant of the cost of illiquidity. We allow market liquidity to vary from `normal' periods, when all assets are fully liquid, to 'illiquidity crises,' when some assets can only be traded infrequently. The possibility of a liquidity crisis leads to limited arbitrage in normal times. Investors are willing to forego 2% of their wealth to hedge against illiquidity crises occurring once every ten years.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew Ang & Dimitris Papanikolaou & Mark Westerfield, 2013. "Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets," NBER Working Papers 19436, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19436 Note: AP
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Dimitri Vayanos & Jiang Wang, 2012. "Market Liquidity - Theory and Empirical Evidence," FMG Discussion Papers dp709, Financial Markets Group.
    2. Arthur Korteweg & Roman Kräussl & Patrick Verwijmeren, 2016. "Does it Pay to Invest in Art? A Selection-Corrected Returns Perspective," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(4), pages 1007-1038.
    3. DeLisle, R. Jared & McTier, Brian C. & Smedema, Adam R., 2016. "Systematic limited arbitrage and the cross-section of stock returns: Evidence from exchange traded funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 118-136.
    4. Morten Sorensen & Neng Wang & Jinqiang Yang, 2014. "Valuing Private Equity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(7), pages 1977-2021.
    5. Salvatore Federico & Paul Gassiat, 2012. "Viscosity characterization of the value function of an investment-consumption problem in presence of illiquid assets," Papers 1211.1286, arXiv.org.
    6. Campanale, Claudio & Fugazza, Carolina & Gomes, Francisco, 2015. "Life-cycle portfolio choice with liquid and illiquid financial assets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 67-83.
    7. David Chambers & Elroy Dimson & Justin Foo, 2013. "Keynes, King's, and Endowment Asset Management," NBER Chapters,in: How the Financial Crisis and Great Recession Affected Higher Education, pages 127-150 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. repec:eee:intfin:v:51:y:2017:i:c:p:15-38 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Dimson, Elroy & Rousseau, Peter L. & Spaenjers, Christophe, 2015. "The price of wine," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(2), pages 431-449.
    10. L. A. Bordag & I. P. Yamshchikov & D. Zhelezov, 2015. "Portfolio optimization in the case of an asset with a given liquidation time distribution," Post-Print hal-01186961, HAL.
    11. Campanale, Claudio & Fugazza, Carolina & Gomes, Francisco J, 2015. "Life-Cycle Portfolio choice with Liquid and Illiquid Assets," CEPR Discussion Papers 10369, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Dirk Broeders & Kristy Jansen & Bas Werker, 2017. "Pension fund's illiquid assets allocation under liquidity and capital constraints," DNB Working Papers 555, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    13. Buss, Adrian & Uppal, Raman & Vilkov, Grigory, 2014. "Asset prices in general equilibrium with recursive utility and illiquidity induced by transactions costs," SAFE Working Paper Series 41, Research Center SAFE - Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe, Goethe University Frankfurt.
    14. Salvatore Federico & Paul Gassiat & Fausto Gozzi, 2012. "Impact of time illiquidity in a mixed market without full observation," Papers 1211.1285, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2015.
    15. repec:luc:wpaper:13-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. I. Halperin & A. Itkin, 2012. "Pricing Illiquid Options with $N+1$ Liquid Proxies Using Mixed Dynamic-Static Hedging," Papers 1209.3503, arXiv.org.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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