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Liquidity and congestion

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  • Afonso, Gara

Abstract

This paper studies the relationship between the endogenous arrival of investors to a market and liquidity in a search-based model of asset trading. Entry of investors causes two contradictory effects. First, it reduces trading costs, which attracts new investors (externality effect). But secondly, as investors concentrate on one side of the market, the market becomes "congested," decreasing the returns to investing and discouraging new investors from entering (congestion effect). The equilibrium level of liquidity depends on which of the two effects dominates. When congestion is the leading effect, some interesting results arise. In particular, diminishing trading costs can deteriorate liquidity and welfare.

Suggested Citation

  • Afonso, Gara, 2011. "Liquidity and congestion," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 324-360, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinin:v:20:y:2011:i:3:p:324-360
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    Cited by:

    1. Gara Afonso & Ricardo Lagos, 2015. "Trade Dynamics in the Market for Federal Funds," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 83, pages 263-313, January.
    2. Julien HUGONNIER & Benjamin LESTER & Pierre-Olivier WEILL, 2014. "Heterogeneity in Decentralized Asset Markets," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 14-67, Swiss Finance Institute.
    3. Julien Hugonnier & Benjamin Lester & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2020. "Frictional Intermediation in Over-the-Counter Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 1432-1469.
    4. Bruche, Max & Segura, Anatoli, 2017. "Debt maturity and the liquidity of secondary debt markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(3), pages 599-613.
    5. Taneli Mäkinen & Francesco Palazzo, 2017. "The double bind of asymmetric information in over-the-counter markets," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1128, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    6. Semih Üslü, 2019. "Pricing and Liquidity in Decentralized Asset Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 87(6), pages 2079-2140, November.
    7. Andrew G. Atkeson & Andrea L. Eisfeldt & Pierre‐Olivier Weill, 2015. "Entry and Exit in OTC Derivatives Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 83, pages 2231-2292, November.
    8. Lagos, Ricardo & Rocheteau, Guillaume & Weill, Pierre-Olivier, 2011. "Crises and liquidity in over-the-counter markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(6), pages 2169-2205.
    9. Lagoarde-Segot, Thomas, 2013. "Does stock market development always improve firm-level financing? Evidence from Tunisia," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 183-208.
    10. Watanabe Makoto, 2020. "Middlemen: A Directed Search Equilibrium Approach," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 20(2), pages 1-37, June.
    11. Pierre-Olivier Weill & Bruno Biais, 2009. "Liquidity shocks and order book dynamics," 2009 Meeting Papers 89, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    12. Richard Lowery & Tim Landvoigt, 2016. "Financial Industry Dynamics," 2016 Meeting Papers 1248, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Patrick Bolton & Tano Santos & Jose A. Scheinkman, 2016. "Cream-Skimming in Financial Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 71(2), pages 709-736, April.
    14. Thomas Lagoarde-Segot, 2013. "Does stock market development always improve firm-level financing? Evidence from Tunisia," Post-Print hal-01500865, HAL.
    15. Andrew G. Atkeson & Andrea L. Eisfeldt & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2013. "The Market for OTC Derivatives," NBER Working Papers 18912, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Guillaume Rocheteau & Pierre‐Olivier Weill, 2011. "Liquidity in Frictional Asset Markets," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(s2), pages 261-282, October.
    17. Terrence Hendershott & Dan Li & Dmitry Livdan & Norman Schürhoff, 2020. "Relationship Trading in Over‐the‐Counter Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 75(2), pages 683-734, April.
    18. Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2020. "The search theory of OTC markets," NBER Working Papers 27354, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Corradin, Stefano & Maddaloni, Angela, 2020. "The importance of being special: Repo markets during the crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(2), pages 392-429.
    20. Ederington, Louis & Guan, Wei & Yadav, Pradeep K., 2015. "Dealer spreads in the corporate bond market: Agent vs. market-making roles," CFR Working Papers 15-11, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    21. Selcuk, Cemil, 2012. "Distressed sales and liquidity in OTC markets," MPRA Paper 38188, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Gara M. Afonso & Anna Kovner & Antoinette Schoar, 2013. "Trading Partners in the Interbank Lending Market," Staff Reports 620, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Liquidity Search Congestion Asset pricing;

    JEL classification:

    • D40 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - General
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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