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Crises and Liquidity in Over-the-Counter Markets

  • Ricardo Lagos
  • Guillaume Rocheteau
  • Pierre-Olivier Weill

We study the efficiency of dealers' liquidity provision and the desirability of policy intervention in over-the-counter (OTC) markets during crises. Our theory emphasizes two key frictions in OTC markets: finding counterparties takes time, and trade is bilateral, with quantities and prices determined by bargaining. We model a crisis as a negative shock to investors' asset demands that lasts until a random recovery time. In this context, dealers can provide liquidity to outside investors by acting as counterparties in trades and by accumulating asset inventories. We find that, when frictions are severe, even well capitalized dealers may not find it optimal to accumulate inventories, given that investors choose asset positions that require small reallocations. In such circumstances, the market allocative efficiency can increase if the government steps in, purchases private assets on its own account, and resells them when the economy recovers.

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File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15414.pdf
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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15414.

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Date of creation: Oct 2009
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Publication status: published as Lagos, Ricardo & Rocheteau, Guillaume & Weill, Pierre-Olivier, 2011. "Crises and liquidity in over-the-counter markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(6), pages 2169-2205.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15414
Note: AP EFG ME
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  1. Hugo A. Hopenhayn & Ingrid M. Werner, 1993. "Information, liquidity and asset trading in a random matching game," Economics Working Papers 19, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  2. Antonio Bernardo & Ivo Welch, 2006. "Liquidity and Financial Market Runs," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm280, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Aug 2003.
  3. Stephen G. Cecchetti, 2008. "Crisis and Responses: the Federal Reserve and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008," NBER Working Papers 14134, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Darrell Duffie & Nicolae Garleanu & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2005. "Over-the-Counter Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 73(6), pages 1815-1847, November.
  5. Sanford J. Grossman & Merton H. Miller, 1988. "Liquidity and Market Structure," NBER Working Papers 2641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Dimitri Vayanos & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2008. "A Search-Based Theory of the On-the-Run Phenomenon," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1361-1398, 06.
  7. Ho, Thomas S Y & Stoll, Hans R, 1983. " The Dynamics of Dealer Markets under Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1053-74, September.
  8. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau, 2007. "Search in asset markets: market structure, liquidity, and welfare," Working Paper 0701, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  9. Francis A. Longstaff, 2004. "The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 77(3), pages 511-526, July.
  10. Freeman, Scott, 1999. "Rediscounting under aggregate risk," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 197-216, February.
  11. Guillaume Rocheteau & Ricardo Lagos, 2008. "Liquidity in asset markets with search frictions," Working Paper 0804, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  12. Denis Gromb & Dimitri Vayanos, 2002. "Equilibrium and welfare in markets with financially constrained arbitrageurs," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 448, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  13. Gara Minguez Afonso, 2008. "Liquidity and Congestion," 2008 Meeting Papers 926, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  14. Hans R. Stoll, . "The Supply of Dealer Services in Securities Markets," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 02-78, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
  15. Ricardo Lagos & Guillaume Rocheteau & Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2008. "Crashes and Recoveries in Illiquid Markets," NBER Working Papers 14119, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Michael J. Fleming & Warren B. Hrung & Frank M. Keane, 2009. "The Term Securities Lending Facility: origin, design, and effects," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 15(Feb).
  17. Pierre-Olivier Weill, 2007. "Leaning Against the Wind," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1329-1354.
  18. Markus K. Brunnermeier, 2009. "Deciphering the Liquidity and Credit Crunch 2007-2008," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 77-100, Winter.
  19. P├ęter Kondor, 2009. "Risk in Dynamic Arbitrage: The Price Effects of Convergence Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(2), pages 631-655, 04.
  20. Afonso, Gara, 2011. "Liquidity and congestion," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 324-360, July.
  21. Freeman, Scott, 1996. "The Payments System, Liquidity, and Rediscounting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1126-38, December.
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