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Where does Philippine education go? : the "K to 12" program and reform of Philippine basic education


  • Okabe, Masayoshi


In 2012 the Philippines launched its "K to 12" Program, a comprehensive reform of its basic education. Through this reform, the Philippines is catching up with global standards in secondary education and is attaching a high value to kindergarten. The structure, curricula, and philosophy of the education system are undergoing reform and improvement. The key points of the new policy are "preparation" for higher education, "eligibility" for entering domestic and overseas higher educational institutions, and immediate "employability" on graduating, all leading toward a "holistically developed Filipino". This policy appears admirable and timely, but it faces some pedagogical and socioeconomic problems. The author wants to point out in particular that the policy needs to address gender problems and should be combined with demand-side approaches in order to promote poverty alleviation and human development in the Philippines.

Suggested Citation

  • Okabe, Masayoshi, 2013. "Where does Philippine education go? : the "K to 12" program and reform of Philippine basic education," IDE Discussion Papers 425, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
  • Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper425

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hanushek, Eric A. & Jamison, Dean T. & Jamison, Eliot A. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "Education and economic growth: It’s not just going to school, but learning something while there that matters," Munich Reprints in Economics 20467, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    2. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters,in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, January.
    4. Jonna P. Estudillo & Yasuyuki Sawada & Keijiro Otsuka, 2008. "Poverty and Income Dynamics in Philippine Villages, 1985-2004," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 877-890, November.
    5. J. Barkley Rosser, 2009. "Introduction," Chapters,in: Handbook of Research on Complexity, chapter 1 Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    More about this item


    Philippines; Educational policy; Secondary education; Social development; Education reform; Human development; Poverty;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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