IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp6836.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

How Different Are the Wage Curves for Formal and Informal Workers? Evidence from Turkey

Author

Listed:
  • Baltagi, Badi H.

    (Syracuse University)

  • Baskaya, Yusuf Soner

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

  • Hulagu, Timur

    (Central Bank of Turkey)

Abstract

This paper presents wage curves for formal and informal workers using a rich individual level data for Turkey over the period 2005-2009. The wage curve is an empirical regularity describing a negative relationship between regional unemployment rates and individuals' real wages. While this relationship has been well documented for a number of countries including Turkey, less attention has focused on how this relationship differs for informal versus formal employment. This is of utmost importance for less developed countries where informal employment plays a significant role in the economy. Using the Turkish Household Labor Force Survey observed over 26 NUTS-2 regions, we find that real hourly wages of informal workers in Turkey are more sensitive to variations in regional unemployment rates than wages of formal workers. This is true for all workers as well as for different gender and age groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Baltagi, Badi H. & Baskaya, Yusuf Soner & Hulagu, Timur, 2012. "How Different Are the Wage Curves for Formal and Informal Workers? Evidence from Turkey," IZA Discussion Papers 6836, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6836
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp6836.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gong, Xiaodong & Van Soest, Arthur & Villagomez, Elizabeth, 2004. "Mobility in the Urban Labor Market: A Panel Data Analysis for Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 1-36, October.
    2. Pradhan, Menno & van Soest, Arthur, 1995. "Formal and informal sector employment in urban areas of Bolivia," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 275-297, September.
    3. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 1995. "The Wage Curve," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026202375x, February.
    4. Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2006. "Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 97-126, July.
    5. Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur, 2002. "Wage differentials and mobility in the urban labour market: a panel data analysis for Mexico," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 513-529, September.
    6. Ramos, Raul & Duque, Juan C. & Surinach, Jordi, 2010. "Is the wage curve formal or informal? Evidence for Colombia," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 63-65, November.
    7. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Timur Hulagu, 2011. "Informal-Formal Worker Wage Gap in Turkey : Evidence From A Semi-Parametric Approach," Working Papers 1115, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    9. David Card, 1995. "The Wage Curve: A Review," Working Papers 722, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    10. David Card, 1995. "The Wage Curve: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(2), pages 285-299, June.
    11. Baltagi, Badi H. & Baskaya, Yusuf Soner & Hulagu, Timur, 2012. "The Turkish wage curve: Evidence from the Household Labor Force Survey," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 128-131.
    12. Aysit Tansel, 1999. "Formal Versus Informal Sector Choice of Wage Earners and their Wages in Turkey," Working Papers 9927, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 1999.
    13. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew Oswald, 1995. "International Wage Curves," NBER Chapters, in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 145-174, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, May.
    15. Mazumdar, Dipak, 1976. "The urban informal sector," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 4(8), pages 655-679, August.
    16. Baltagi, Badi H. & Baskaya, Yusuf Soner & Hulagu, Timur, 2012. "The Turkish wage curve: Evidence from the Household Labor Force Survey," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 128-131.
    17. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
    18. Janine Berg & Dante Contreras, 2004. "Political-Economic Regime and the Wage Curve: Evidence from Chile, 1957-96," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 151-165.
    19. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    20. repec:fth:prinin:343 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Pratap, Sangeeta & Quintin, Erwan, 2006. "Are labor markets segmented in developing countries? A semiparametric approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1817-1841, October.
    22. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, May.
    23. Shilov, Andrey & Möller, Joachim, 2009. "The wage curve in Russia, 1995-2005," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 90-92, February.
    24. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 1995. "The Wage Curve," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026202375x, March.
    25. Baltagi, Badi H. & Blien, Uwe, 1998. "The German wage curve: evidence from the IAB employment sample," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 135-142, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Selin Pelek, 2018. "The Impact of the Minimum Wage on Wage Distribution: The Evidence from Turkey," Ekonomi-tek - International Economics Journal, Turkish Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 17-59, January.
    2. Dennis Becker, 2018. "Heterogeneous firms and informality: the effects of trade liberalization on labour markets," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 47-72.
    3. Afşin Şahin & Aysit Tansel & M. Hakan Berument, 2015. "Output–Employment Relationship Across Sectors: A Long- Versus Short-Run Perspective," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 265-288, July.
    4. Joan Daouli & Michael Demoussis & Nicholas Giannakopoulos & Ioannis Laliotis, 2017. "The wage curve before and during the Greek economic crisis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 52(1), pages 59-77, February.
    5. Becker, Dennis, 2014. "Heterogeneous Firms and Informality: The Effects of Trade Liberalization on Labor Markets," Working Papers 180124, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    6. Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi & Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp, 2016. "New evidence on the wage curve: non-linearities, urban size, and spatial scale in Brazil," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2016_39, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    7. Afşin Şahin & Aysit Tansel & M. Hakan Berument, 2015. "Output–Employment Relationship Across Sectors: A Long- Versus Short-Run Perspective," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 265-288, July.
    8. Badi H. Baltagi & Bartlomiej Rokicki & Kênia Barreiro Souza, 2017. "The Brazilian wage curve: new evidence from the National Household Survey," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 267-286, August.
    9. Taiwo Aderemi, 2015. "Does the wage curve exist in Nigeria? Evidence from a disaggregated labour market," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 17(2), pages 184-199, October.
    10. Kazuyuki Inagaki, 2015. "Wage curve in dual labor markets: cross-sectional evidence from Japan," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 4(2), pages 51-56.
    11. Ana Barufi & Eduardo Haddad & Peter Nijkamp, 2016. "A comprehensive analysis of the wage curve in Brazil: Non-linearities, urban size, and the spatial dimension," ERSA conference papers ersa16p279, European Regional Science Association.
    12. Rokicki, Bartlomiej & Blien, Uwe & Hewings, Geoffrey J. D. & Phan thi Hong, Van, 2020. "Is there a Wage Curve with Regional Real Wages?," IAB Discussion Paper 202017, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Timur Hulagu, 2011. "Informal-Formal Worker Wage Gap in Turkey : Evidence From A Semi-Parametric Approach," Working Papers 1115, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    2. Badi H. Baltagi & Bartlomiej Rokicki & Kênia Barreiro Souza, 2017. "The Brazilian wage curve: new evidence from the National Household Survey," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(1), pages 267-286, August.
    3. Aysit Tansel & Elif Oznur Acar, 2016. "The Formal/Informal Employment Earnings Gap: Evidence from Turkey," Research on Economic Inequality, in: John A. Bishop & Juan Gabriel Rodríguez (ed.), Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting, volume 24, pages 121-154, Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    4. Hector Elias Gutierrez Rufrancos, 2012. "The Mexican Wage Curve 2000-2003: A Quantile Analysis," Working Paper Series 3412, Department of Economics, University of Sussex Business School.
    5. Ramos, Raul & Duque, Juan C. & Surinach, Jordi, 2010. "Is the wage curve formal or informal? Evidence for Colombia," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 63-65, November.
    6. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "Informal-formal wage gaps in Colombia," Working Papers 301, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    7. Víctor M. Montuenga‐Gómez & José M. Ramos‐Parreño, 2005. "Reconciling the Wage Curve and the Phillips Curve," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(5), pages 735-765, December.
    8. Baltagi, Badi H. & Baskaya, Yusuf Soner & Hulagu, Timur, 2012. "The Turkish wage curve: Evidence from the Household Labor Force Survey," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 128-131.
    9. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2005. "The Last Word on the Wage Curve?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 421-450, July.
    10. Baltagi, Badi H. & Rokicki, Bartlomiej, 2014. "The spatial Polish wage curve with gender effects: Evidence from the Polish Labor Survey," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 36-47.
    11. Marisa Carla Bucheli Anaya & Cecilia González Rodríguez-Villamil, 2012. "An estimation of the wage curve for Uruguay," Revista Cuadernos de Economía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia -FCE - CID, June.
    12. Sergio Destefanis & Giovanni Pica, 2010. "It’s wages, it’s hours, it’s the Italian wage curve," CSEF Working Papers 247, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    13. Uwe Blien & Susanne Messmann & Mark Trappmann, 2012. "Do reservation wages react to regional unemployment?," ERSA conference papers ersa12p662, European Regional Science Association.
    14. Dieter von Fintel, 2016. "Wage flexibility in a high unemployment regime: spatial heterogeneity and the size of local labour markets," Working Papers 09/2016, Stellenbosch University, Department of Economics.
    15. David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2005. "The Wage Curve Reloaded," NBER Working Papers 11338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Nancy Daza & Luis Fernando Gamboa, 2013. "An approximation to the Informal-formal wage gap in Colombia 2008-2012," Documentos de Trabajo 010990, Universidad del Rosario.
    17. Konyalı, Gonca, 2012. "Wage Curve Evidence From Turkey’s 2007-2009 Income and Living Conditions Survey," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 24, pages 199-210.
    18. Lili Kang & Fei Peng, 2017. "Wage flexibility in the Chinese labour market, 1989–2009," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(4), pages 616-628, April.
    19. Kosfeld, Reinhold & Dreger, Christian, 2019. "Towards an East German wage curve - NUTS boundaries, labour market regions and unemployment spillovers," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 115-124.
    20. Baltagi, Badi H. & Baskaya, Yusuf Soner & Hulagu, Timur, 2012. "The Turkish wage curve: Evidence from the Household Labor Force Survey," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 128-131.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    wage curve; formal/informal employment; regional labor markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C26 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation
    • J30 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - General
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6836. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.