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How Different are the Wage Curves for Formal and Informal Workers? Evidence from Turkey

  • Badi H. Baltagi
  • Yusuf Soner Baskaya
  • Timur Hulagu

This paper presents wage curves for formal and informal workers using a rich individual level data for Turkey over the period 2005-2009. The wage curve is an empirical regularity describing a negative relationship between regional unemployment rates and individuals' real wages. While this relationship has been well documented for a number of countries including Turkey, less attention has focused on how this relationship differs for informal versus formal employment. This is of utmost importance for less developed countries where informal employment plays a signifcant role in the economy. Using the Turkish Household Labor Force Survey observed over 26 NUTS-2 regions, we find that real hourly wages of informal workers in Turkey are more sensitive to variations in regional unemployment rates than wages of formal workers. This is true for all workers as well as for different gender and age groups.

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File URL: http://www.tcmb.gov.tr/wps/wcm/connect/TCMB+EN/TCMB+EN/Main+Menu/PUBLICATIONS/Research/Working+Paperss/2012/12-16
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Paper provided by Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in its series Working Papers with number 1216.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:tcb:wpaper:1216
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  1. Janine Berg & Dante Contreras, 2002. "Political-Economic Regime and the Wage Curve: Evidence from Chile, 1957-96," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2002-10, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
  2. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1990. " The Wage Curve," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(2), pages 215-35.
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  3. Pradhan, M.P. & van Soest, A.H.O., 1993. "Formal and informal sector employment in urban areas of Bolivia," Discussion Paper 1993-11, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
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    • David G. Blanchflower & Andrew Oswald, 1995. "International Wage Curves," NBER Chapters, in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 145-174 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  6. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, September.
  7. Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Timur Hulagu, 2011. "Informal-Formal Worker Wage Gap in Turkey : Evidence From A Semi-Parametric Approach," Working Papers 1115, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  8. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
  9. Richard B. Freeman & Lawrence F. Katz, 1995. "Differences and Changes in Wage Structures," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number free95-1, September.
  10. David Card, 1995. "The Wage Curve: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(2), pages 285-299, June.
  11. Aysit Tansel, 1999. "Formal Versus Informal Sector Choice of Wage Earners and their Wages in Turkey," Working Papers 9927, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 1999.
  12. Shilov, Andrey & Möller, Joachim, 2009. "The wage curve in Russia, 1995-2005," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 90-92, February.
  13. Kleibergen, F.R. & Paap, R., 2003. "Generalized Reduced Rank Tests using the Singular Value Decomposition," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2003-01, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  14. Mazumdar, Dipak, 1976. "The urban informal sector," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 4(8), pages 655-679, August.
  15. Raul Ramos & Juan Carlos Duque & Jordi Suriñach, 2009. "Is The Wage Curve Formal Or Informal? Evidence For Colombia," IREA Working Papers 200918, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised Jul 2009.
  16. Badi H. Baltagi & Yusuf Soner Baskaya & Timur Hulagu, 2011. "The Turkish Wage Curve: Evidence from the Household Labor Force Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 134, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  17. Baltagi, Badi H. & Blien, Uwe, 1998. "The German wage curve: evidence from the IAB employment sample," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 135-142, November.
  18. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters, in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  20. Pratap, Sangeeta & Quintin, Erwan, 2006. "Are labor markets segmented in developing countries? A semiparametric approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1817-1841, October.
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