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The Effects of "Girl-Friendly" Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso

Author

Listed:
  • Kazianga, Harounan

    () (Oklahoma State University)

  • Levy, Dan

    () (Harvard Kennedy School)

  • Linden, Leigh L.

    () (University of Texas at Austin)

  • Sloan, Matt

    (Mathematica Policy Research)

Abstract

We evaluate the causal effects of a program that constructed high quality "girl-friendly" primary schools in Burkina Faso, using a regression discontinuity design 2.5 years after the program started. We find that the program increased enrollment of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 by 20 percentage points and increased their test scores by 0.45 standard deviations. The change in test scores for those children caused to attend school by the program is 2.2 standard deviations. We also find that the program was particularly effective for girls, increasing their enrollment rate by 5 percentage points more than boys', although this did not translate into a differential effect on test scores. Disentangling the effects of school access from the unique characteristics of the new schools, we find that the unique characteristics were responsible for a 13 percentage point increase in enrollment and 0.35 standard deviations in test scores, while simply providing a school increased enrollment by 26.5 percentage points and test scores by 0.323 standard deviations. The unique characteristics of the school account for the entire difference in the treatment effect by gender.

Suggested Citation

  • Kazianga, Harounan & Levy, Dan & Linden, Leigh L. & Sloan, Matt, 2012. "The Effects of "Girl-Friendly" Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso," IZA Discussion Papers 6574, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6574
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Glewwe, Paul & Kremer, Michael & Moulin, Sylvie & Zitzewitz, Eric, 2004. "Retrospective vs. prospective analyses of school inputs: the case of flip charts in Kenya," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 251-268, June.
    2. Joshua Angrist & Eric Bettinger & Erik Bloom & Elizabeth King & Michael Kremer, 2002. "Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1535-1558, December.
    3. repec:feb:natura:0004 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Marian Meller & Stephan Litschig, 2016. "Adapting the Supply of Education to the Needs of Girls: Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Rural India," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 51(3), pages 760-802.
    2. de Hoop, Jacobus & Rosati, Furio C., 2014. "Does promoting school attendance reduce child labor? Evidence from Burkina Faso's BRIGHT project," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 78-96.
    3. Marine de Talancé, 2016. "Wealth inequalities in perceptions of school quality in Pakistan," Working Papers DT/2016/14, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    4. Blimpo, Moussa P. & Gajigo, Ousman & Pugatch, Todd, 2015. "Financial Constraints and Girls' Secondary Education: Evidence from School Fee Elimination in The Gambia," IZA Discussion Papers 9129, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Karthik Muralidharan & Nishith Prakash, 2017. "Cycling to School: Increasing Secondary School Enrollment for Girls in India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 321-350, July.
    6. repec:oup:ajagec:v:99:y:2017:i:1:p:34-54. is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Emilie Bagby & Kristine Bos & Anca Dumitrescu & Nicholas Ingwersen & Matt Sloan, "undated". "Niger NECS Impact Evaluation Report," Mathematica Policy Research Reports a759ff92090a4c2aba4caefe6, Mathematica Policy Research.
    8. Dickerson, Andy & McIntosh, Steven & Valente, Christine, 2015. "Do the maths: An analysis of the gender gap in mathematics in Africa," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-22.
    9. repec:bla:rdevec:v:21:y:2017:i:4:p:1113-1131 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Maiga, Eugenie W.H., 2014. "Does foreign aid in education foster gender equality in developing countries?," WIDER Working Paper Series 048, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Pugatch, Todd & Schroeder, Elizabeth, 2014. "Incentives for teacher relocation: Evidence from the Gambian hardship allowance," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 120-136.
    12. Harounan Kazianga & Leigh Linden & Ali Protik & Matt Sloan, 2015. "Impact Evaluation of Burkina Faso's BRIGHT Program: Design Report," Mathematica Policy Research Reports c0250cd3f27d448ea70d909c3, Mathematica Policy Research.
    13. Berk Ozler, 2015. "Keeping Girls in School," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23866, The World Bank.
    14. Alejandro J. Ganimian & Richard J. Murnane, 2014. "Improving Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries: Lessons from Rigorous Impact Evaluations," NBER Working Papers 20284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Harounan Kazianga & Francis Makamu, 2017. "Crop Choice, School Participation, and Child Labor in Developing Countries: Cotton Expansion in Burkina Faso," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 99(1), pages 34-54.
    16. Mikal Davis & Nick Ingwersen & Harounan Kazianga & Leigh Linden & Arif Mamun & Ali Protik & Matt Sloan, "undated". "Ten-Year Impacts of Burkina Faso's BRIGHT Program," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 2ecdd42bb503422b802ce20da, Mathematica Policy Research.
    17. Emilie Bagby & Anca Dumitrescu & Cara Orfield & Matt Sloan, "undated". "Évaluation de l'Impact à Long Terme du Projet IMAGINE au Niger," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 98a4a5fd10a54222ae00cbdeb, Mathematica Policy Research.
    18. Emilie Bagby & Anca Dumitrescu & Cara Orfield & Matt Sloan, "undated". "Long-Term Evaluation of the IMAGINE Project in Niger (English version)," Mathematica Policy Research Reports f8404bbfd4eb4276a7925d300, Mathematica Policy Research.
    19. Emilie Bagby & Alyson Burnett & Anca Dumitrescu & Kristine Johnston & Cara Orfield & Matt Sloan, "undated". "Niger NECS Impact Evaluation Baseline Report," Mathematica Policy Research Reports c44d750f175f4314a9816bf9d, Mathematica Policy Research.
    20. Harounan Kazianga & Leigh Linden & Ali Protik & Matt Sloan, 2016. "The Medium-Term Impacts of Girl-Friendly Schools: Seven-Year Evidence from School Construction in Burkina Faso," Development Working Papers 406, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 11 Nov 2016.
    21. Marine De Talance, 2017. "Wealth Inequalities in Perceptions of School Quality in Pakistan," Working Papers hal-01662698, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    gender inequality; education; Africa; enrollment;

    JEL classification:

    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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