Turning 18: What a Difference Application of Adult Criminal Law Makes
This paper contributes to the literature on specific deterrence by addressing the issue of selecting adolescents into adult and juvenile law systems. In Germany, different from the U.S. and most other countries, turning a critical cutoff age does not cause a sharp discontinuity from juvenile to adult penal law, but rather implies a shift to a discretionary system of both adult and juvenile law, dependent on the courts' impression of moral and mental personal development of the adolescent at the time of the act. The German legal system draws the line of adulthood at some fuzzy age interval between 18 and 21, which is well above the thresholds prevailing in the U.S. (16 to 18 years, state specific) and other countries such that the German evidence entails some external evidence to the previous literature mostly relying on U.S. data. Based on a unique inmate survey and two-equation models controlling for selectivity problems, results show that application of adult criminal law instead of juvenile penal law decreases expected recidivism of adolescents.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2011|
|Publication status:||published as 'Expected Recidivism among Young Offenders: Comparing Specific Deterrence under Juvenile and Adult Criminal Law' in: European Journal of Political Economy, 2012, 28 (4), 414-429|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters,in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Randi Hjalmarsson, 2009. "Juvenile Jails: A Path to the Straight and Narrow or to Hardened Criminality?," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(4), pages 779-809, November.
- Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "Juvenile Crime and Punishment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1156-1185, December.
- Wilbert van der Klaauw, 2008. "Regression-Discontinuity Analysis: A Survey of Recent Developments in Economics," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 22(2), pages 219-245, June.
- Entorf Horst, 2009.
"Crime and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Survey of Inmates,"
Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik),
De Gruyter, vol. 229(2-3), pages 254-269, April.
- Entorf, Horst, 2008. "Crime and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Survey of Inmates," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-131, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Entorf, Horst, 2009. "Crime and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Survey of Inmates," IZA Discussion Papers 3976, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Lance Lochner, 2007.
"Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 444-460, March.
- Lance Lochner, 2003. "Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," NBER Working Papers 9474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lance Lochner, 2005. "Individual Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System," 2005 Meeting Papers 452, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2008.
"Is Being 'Soft on Crime' the Solution to Rising Crime Rates? Evidence from Germany,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3710, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Horst Entorf & Hannes Spengler, 2008. "Is Being 'Soft on Crime' the Solution to Rising Crime Rates?: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 837, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- McCrary, Justin & Lee, David S., 2009. "The Deterrence Effect of Prison: Dynamic Theory and Evidence," Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series qt2gh1r30h, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics.
- Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008.
"Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Working Papers 13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Technical Working Papers 0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
- Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Entorf, H. & Winker, P., 2008.
"Investigating the drugs-crime channel in economics of crime models: Empirical evidence from panel data of the German States,"
International Review of Law and Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 8-22, March.
- Entorf, Horst & Winker, Peter, 2005. "Investigating the drugs-crime channel in economics of crime models empirical evidence from panel data of the German states," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 165, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics.