Tipping and Residential Segregation: A Unified Schelling Model
This paper presents a Schelling-type checkerboard model of residential segregation formulated as a spatial game. It shows that although every agent prefers to live in a mixed-race neighborhood, complete segregation is observed almost all of the time. A concept of tipping is rigorously defined, which is crucial for understanding the dynamics of segregation. Complete segregation emerges and persists in the checkerboard model precisely because tipping is less likely to occur to such residential patterns. Agent-based simulations are used to illustrate how an integrated residential area is tipped into complete segregation and why this process is irreversible. This model incorporates insights from Schelling's two classical models of segregation (the checkerboard model and the neighborhood tipping model) and puts them on a rigorous footing. It helps us better understand the persistence of residential segregation in urban America.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2009|
|Publication status:||published in: Journal of Regional Science, 2011, 51(1), 167-193|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- N. Emrah Aydinonat, 2005.
"An interview with Thomas C. Schelling: Interpretation of game theory and the checkerboard model,"
AccessEcon, vol. 2(2), pages 1-7.
- N. Emrah Aydinonat, 2005. "An interview with Thomas C. Schelling: Interpretation of game theory and the checkerboard model," Method and Hist of Econ Thought 0510001, EconWPA.
- Pancs, Romans & Vriend, Nicolaas J., 2007. "Schelling's spatial proximity model of segregation revisited," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1-2), pages 1-24, February.
- Romans Pancs & Nicolaas J. Vriend, "undated". "Schelling's Spatial Proximity Model of Segregation Revisited," Modeling, Computing, and Mastering Complexity 2003 15, Society for Computational Economics.
- Romans Pancs & Nicolaas J. Vriend, 2003. "Schelling's Spatial Proximity Model of Segregation Revisited," Computing in Economics and Finance 2003 63, Society for Computational Economics.
- Romans Pancs & Nicolaas J. Vriend, 2003. "Schelling's Spatial Proximity Model of Segregation Revisited," Working Papers 487, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
- Junfu Zhang, 2003. "Revisiting Residential Segregation by Income: A Monte Carlo Test," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 2(1), pages 27-37, April.
- Miyao, Takahiro, 1978. "Dynamic Instability of a Mixed City in the Presence of Neighborhood Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 454-463, June.
- Katz, Lawrence & Duncan, Greg J. & Kling, Jeffrey R. & Kessler, Ronald C. & Ludwig, Jens & Sanbonmatsu, Lisa & Liebman, Jeffrey B., 2008. "What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?," Scholarly Articles 2766959, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Bayer, Patrick & McMillan, Robert & Rueben, Kim S., 2004. "What drives racial segregation? New evidence using Census microdata," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 514-535, November.
- Patrick Bayer & Robert McMillan & Kim Rueben, 2002. "What Drives Racial Segregation? New Evidence Using Census Microdata," Working Papers 02-26, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Patrick Bayer & Robert McMillan & Kim Rueben, 2003. "What Drives Racial Segregation? New Evidence Using Census Microdata," Working Papers 859, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Patrick J. Bayer & Robert McMillan & Kim Rueben, 2004. "What Drives Racial Segregation? New Evidence Using Census Microdata," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm409, Yale School of Management.
- Galster, George C., 1987. "Residential segregation and interracial economic disparities: A simultaneous-equations approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 22-44, January.
- Vigdor, Jacob L., 2003. "Residential segregation and preference misalignment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 587-609, November.
- Cloutier, Norman R, 1982. "Urban Residential Segregation and Black Income," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(2), pages 282-288, May.
- Courant, Paul N., 1978. "Racial prejudice in a search model of the urban housing market," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 329-345, July.
- Kern, Clifford R., 1981. "Racial prejudice and residential segregation: The Yinger model revisited," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 164-172, September.
- Yinger, John, 1976. "Racial prejudice and racial residential segregation in an urban model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 383-396, October.
- Bøg, Martin, 2007. "Is Segregation Robust?," MPRA Paper 8774, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- John F. Kain, 1968. "Housing Segregation, Negro Employment, and Metropolitan Decentralization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(2), pages 175-197.
- Joshua M. Epstein & Robert L. Axtell, 1996. "Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262550253, December.
- Ann B. Schnare, 1976. "Racial and Ethnic Price Differentials in an Urban Housing Market," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 13(2), pages 107-120, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)