IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Tipping And Residential Segregation: A Unified Schelling Model

  • Junfu Zhang

This paper presents a Schelling-type checkerboard model of residential segregation formulated as a spatial game. It shows that although every agent prefers to live in a mixed-race neighborhood, complete segregation is observed almost all of the time. A concept of tipping is rigorously defined, which is crucial for understanding the dynamics of segregation. Complete segregation emerges and persists in the checkerboard model precisely because tipping is less likely to occur to such residential patterns. Agent-based simulations are used to illustrate how an integrated residential area is tipped into complete segregation and why this process is irreversible. This model incorporates insights from Schelling's two classical models of segregation (the checkerboard model and the neighborhood tipping model) and puts them on a rigorous footing. It helps us better understand the persistence of residential segregation in urban America.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
1. Check below under "Related research" whether another version of this item is available online.
2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Regional Science.

Volume (Year): 51 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (02)
Pages: 167-193

in new window

Handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:51:y:2011:i:1:p:167-193
Contact details of provider: Web page:

Order Information: Web:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Patrick J. Bayer & Robert McMillan & Kim Rueben, 2004. "What Drives Racial Segregation? New Evidence Using Census Microdata," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm409, Yale School of Management.
  2. Kern, Clifford R., 1981. "Racial prejudice and residential segregation: The Yinger model revisited," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 164-172, September.
  3. Katz, Lawrence & Duncan, Greg J. & Kling, Jeffrey R. & Kessler, Ronald C. & Ludwig, Jens & Sanbonmatsu, Lisa & Liebman, Jeffrey B., 2008. "What Can We Learn about Neighborhood Effects from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment?," Scholarly Articles 2766959, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  4. Yinger, John, 1976. "Racial prejudice and racial residential segregation in an urban model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 383-396, October.
  5. Romans Pancs & Nicolaas J. Vriend, . "Schelling's Spatial Proximity Model of Segregation Revisited," Modeling, Computing, and Mastering Complexity 2003 15, Society for Computational Economics.
  6. Courant, Paul N., 1978. "Racial prejudice in a search model of the urban housing market," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 329-345, July.
  7. Joshua M. Epstein & Robert L. Axtell, 1996. "Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262550253, December.
  8. Junfu Zhang, 2003. "Revisiting Residential Segregation by Income: A Monte Carlo Test," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business, and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 2(1), pages 27-37, April.
  9. Galster, George C., 1987. "Residential segregation and interracial economic disparities: A simultaneous-equations approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 22-44, January.
  10. Vigdor, Jacob L., 2003. "Residential segregation and preference misalignment," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 587-609, November.
  11. Ann B. Schnare, 1976. "Racial and Ethnic Price Differentials in an Urban Housing Market," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 13(2), pages 107-120, June.
  12. Bøg, Martin, 2007. "Is Segregation Robust?," MPRA Paper 8774, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  13. Miyao, Takahiro, 1978. "Dynamic Instability of a Mixed City in the Presence of Neighborhood Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(3), pages 454-63, June.
  14. Cloutier, Norman R, 1982. "Urban Residential Segregation and Black Income," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(2), pages 282-88, May.
  15. John F. Kain, 1968. "Housing Segregation, Negro Employment, and Metropolitan Decentralization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(2), pages 175-197.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jregsc:v:51:y:2011:i:1:p:167-193. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing)

or (Christopher F. Baum)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.