IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cor/louvco/1999013.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Racial discrimination and redlining in cities

Author

Listed:
  • BOCCARD, Nicolas

    (Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE), Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), 1348 Louvain la Neuve, Belgium)

  • ZENOU, Yves

    (CERAS, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees GAINS, Universite du Maine)

Abstract

We propose a model where employers have two types of prejudices: racial and spatial discriminations. Because of the rst one, black workers have less chance than white workers to nd a job. Because of the second one, workers living closer to the city-center have less chances than suburban workers to nd a job. In this context, we show that depending on the importance of access costs to employment centers two urban equilibria may emerge. In Equilibrium 1 (the access cost for blacks is quite large), black and white workers are totally separated while in Equilibrium 2 (the access cost for blacks is relatively small), workers are separated by their employment status (the unemployed versus the employed). We then study the labor market equilibrium and its interactions with the land market. We show in particular that both race and space matter to explain high unemployment rates among blacks.

Suggested Citation

  • BOCCARD, Nicolas & ZENOU, Yves, 1999. "Racial discrimination and redlining in cities," CORE Discussion Papers 1999013, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  • Handle: RePEc:cor:louvco:1999013
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://uclouvain.be/en/research-institutes/immaq/core/dp-1999.html
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. repec:cor:louvrp:-1261 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Frédéric Gannon & Yves Zenou, 1997. "Segregation and Labor Discrimination in Cities," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 45, pages 233-249.
    3. Boarnet, Marlon G. & Bogart, William T., 1996. "Enterprise Zones and Employment: Evidence from New Jersey," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 198-215, September.
    4. Rasmusen, Eric, 1996. "Stigma and Self-Fulfilling Expectations of Criminality," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 519-543, October.
    5. Hartwick, John & Schweizer, Urs & Varaiya, Pravin, 1976. "Comparative statics of a residential economy with several classes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 396-413, December.
    6. Helen F. Ladd, 1998. "Evidence on Discrimination in Mortgage Lending," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 41-62, Spring.
    7. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-276, March.
    8. Mauer, David C. & Ott, Steven H., 1999. "On the Optimal Structure of Government Subsidies for Enterprise Zones and Other Locational Development Programs," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 421-450, May.
    9. Zenou, Yves, 2000. "Urban unemployment, agglomeration and transportation policies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 97-133, July.
    10. O'Neill, June, 1990. "The Role of Human Capital in Earnings Differences between Black and White Men," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 25-45, Fall.
    11. Brueckner, Jan K. & Zenou, Yves, 1999. "Harris-Todaro models with a land market," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 317-339, May.
    12. Rose-Ackerman, Susan, 1975. "Racism and urban structure," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 85-103, January.
    13. Roland Bénabou, 1996. "Equity and Efficiency in Human Capital Investment: The Local Connection," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(2), pages 237-264.
    14. Papke, Leslie E., 1994. "Tax policy and urban development : Evidence from the Indiana enterprise zone program," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 37-49, May.
    15. Douglas Massey & Nancy Denton, 1989. "Hypersegregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Black and Hispanic Segregation Along Five Dimensions," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 26(3), pages 373-391, August.
    16. David M. Cutler & Edward L. Glaeser, 1997. "Are Ghettos Good or Bad?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 827-872.
    17. Ihlanfeldt Keith R., 1993. "Intra-urban Job Accessibility and Hispanic Youth Employment Rates," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 254-271, March.
    18. Raphael, Steven, 1998. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis and Black Youth Joblessness: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 79-111, January.
    19. Yinger, John, 1976. "Racial prejudice and racial residential segregation in an urban model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 383-396, October.
    20. Edward L. Glaeser & Bruce Sacerdote, 1999. "Why Is There More Crime in Cities?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(S6), pages 225-258, December.
    21. Zenou, Yves & Smith, Tony E., 1995. "Efficiency wages, involuntary unemployment and urban spatial structure," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 547-573, August.
    22. Brueckner, Jan K. & Martin, Richard W., 1997. "Spatial mismatch: An equilibrium analysis," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 693-714, November.
    23. Roland Benabou, 1993. "Workings of a City: Location, Education, and Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 619-652.
    24. Scott South & Kyle Crowder, 1997. "Residential mobility between cities and suburbs: race, suburbanization, and back-to-the-city moves," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 34(4), pages 525-538, November.
    25. Courant, Paul N. & Yinger, John, 1977. "On models of racial prejudice and urban residential structure," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 272-291, July.
    26. Leonard, Jonathan S, 1990. "The Impact of Affirmative Action Regulation and Equal Employment Law on Black Employment," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 47-63, Fall.
    27. Leonard, Jonathan S, 1996. "Wage Disparities and Affirmative Action in the 1980's," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 285-289, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Plum, Alexander & Knies, Gundi, 2015. "Earnings prospects for low-paid workers higher than for the unemployed but only in high-pay areas with high unemployment," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112845, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    2. Claire Dujardin & Florence Goffette-Nagot, 2005. "Neighborhood effects, public housing and unemployment in France," Post-Print halshs-00180046, HAL.
    3. Plum, Alexander & Knies, Gundi, 2015. "Does neighbourhood unemployment affect the springboard effect of low pay?," ISER Working Paper Series 2015-20, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    4. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2007. "The Mechanisms of Spatial Mismatch," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 44(12), pages 2401-2427, November.
    5. Emmanuel Duguet & Yannick L'Horty & Florent Sari, 2010. "Housing ownership, social housing and unemployment: an econometric analysis of the Paris area," Working Papers halshs-00809693, HAL.
    6. Olof Åslund & John Östh & Yves Zenou, 2010. "How important is access to jobs? Old question--improved answer," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 389-422, May.
    7. Zenou, Yves, 2002. "How do firms redline workers?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 391-408, November.
    8. Ethan Cohen-Cole, 2008. "Credit card redlining," Risk and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper QAU08-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    9. Rathelot, Roland, 2014. "Ethnic differentials on the labor market in the presence of asymmetric spatial sorting: Set identification and estimation," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 154-167.
    10. Dujardin, Claire & Goffette-Nagot, Florence, 2010. "Neighborhood effects on unemployment?: A test à la Altonji," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 380-396, November.
    11. repec:wly:econjl:v:125:y:2015:i:586:p:f82-f114 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Leonardo Fabio Morales & Lina Cardona-Sosa, 2014. "The Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics on Wages and Labor Supply in an Urban Context: The Case of a Latin-American City," Borradores de Economia 844, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    13. Stephen L. Ross, 2003. "Ségrégation and Racial Preferences: New Theoretical and Empirical Approaches," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 71-72, pages 97-139.
    14. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2002. "Spatial Mismatch : From the Hypothesis of the Theories," Working Papers 2002-57, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    15. Cai, Zhengyu & Maguire, Karen & Winters, John V., 2018. "Who Benefits from Local Oil and Gas Employment? Labor Market Composition in the Oil and Gas Industry in Texas," GLO Discussion Paper Series 246, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    16. Dietz, Robert D. & Haurin, Donald R., 2003. "The social and private micro-level consequences of homeownership," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 401-450, November.
    17. Yannick L'Horty & Emmanuel Duguet & Loïc Du Parquet & Pascale Petit & Florent Sari, 2011. "The effect of place of residence on access to employment : a field experiment on qualified young job applicants in Ile-de-France," Working Papers halshs-00812113, HAL.
    18. Tito Boeri & Marta De Philippis & Eleonora Patacchini & Michele Pellizzari, 2015. "Immigration, Housing Discrimination and Employment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 125(586), pages 82-114, August.
    19. Jan K. Brueckner & Harris Selod, 2009. "A Theory of Urban Squatting and Land-Tenure Formalization in Developing Countries," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 28-51, February.
    20. Bechara, Peggy & Eilers, Lea & Paloyo, Alfredo R., 2015. "In Good Company – Neighborhood Quality and Female Employment," Ruhr Economic Papers 535, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cor:louvco:1999013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alain GILLIS). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/coreebe.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.