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Understanding the Labour Market for Older Workers: A Survey

  • Heywood, John S.

    ()

    (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee)

  • Siebert, W. Stanley

    ()

    (University of Birmingham)

The paper asks why retirement can be so abrupt in countries such as France (½% of the workforce over 65), yet staged in Japan (8% over 65). We find part of the answer in tax laws that prevent people working and receiving a pension, and make little allowance for fair pension increases if retirement is deferred. While these laws have begun to change, we find another part of the answer in employment protection laws. These laws coupled with inflexible collectively agreed wages make employers choosy about hiring the old. The advent of "age discrimination" law reinforces employment protection and may well reduce older workers' hiring opportunities especially where wages are rigid.

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File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp4033.pdf
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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4033.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2009
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4033
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  1. Richard Disney, 1996. "Can We Afford to Grow Older?," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026204157x, March.
  2. Daniel, Kirsten & Heywood, John S., 2007. "The determinants of hiring older workers: UK evidence," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 35-51, January.
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  4. Ichino, A. & Flabbi, L., 1998. "Productivity, Seniority and Wages. New Evidence form Personnel Data," Economics Working Papers eco98/11, European University Institute.
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  8. Robert M. Hutchens, 1988. "Do Job Opportunities Decline with Age?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(1), pages 89-99, October.
  9. Daniel, Kirsten & Siebert, W. Stanley, 2004. "Does Employment Protection Reduce the Demand for Unskilled Labor?," IZA Discussion Papers 1290, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. John S. Heywood & Lok-Sang Ho & Xiangdong Wei, 1999. "The Determinants of Hiring Older Workers: Evidence from Hong Kong," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(3), pages 444-459, April.
  11. Barry T. Hirsch & David A. Macpherson & Melissa A. Hardy, 2000. "Occupational Age Structure and Access for Older Workers," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(3), pages 401-418, April.
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  13. David Neumark & Wendy A. Stock, 1997. "Age Discrimination Laws and Labor Market Efficiency," NBER Working Papers 6088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Joanna Lahey, 2006. "State Age Protection Laws and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College wp2006-24, Center for Retirement Research, revised Nov 2006.
  15. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
  16. James L. Medoff & Katharine G. Abraham, 1981. "Are Those Paid More Really More Productive? The Case of Experience," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 16(2), pages 186-216.
  17. Tammy Schirle, 2008. "Why Have the Labor Force Participation Rates of Older Men Increased since the Mid-1990s?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 549-594, October.
  18. Patrick Aubert & Eve Caroli & Muriel Roger, 2006. "New technologies, organisation and age: firm level evidence," Post-Print halshs-00754173, HAL.
  19. Richard Disney & Sarah Smith, 2002. "The Labour Supply Effect of the Abolition of the Earnings Rule for Older Workers in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages C136-C152, March.
  20. A. Zabalza & C. Pissarides & M. Barton, 1980. "Social security and the choice between full-time work, part-time work and retirement," NBER Chapters, in: Econometric Studies in Public Finance, pages 245-276 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Lazear, Edward P, 1981. "Agency, Earnings Profiles, Productivity, and Hours Restrictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 606-620, September.
  22. Hutchens, Robert, 1986. "Delayed Payment Contracts and a Firm's Propensity to Hire Older Workers," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 4(4), pages 439-57, October.
  23. Lazear, Edward P, 1979. "Why Is There Mandatory Retirement?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1261-1284, December.
  24. Adams, Scott J., 2004. "Age discrimination legislation and the employment of older workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 219-241, April.
  25. Frank A. Scott & Mark C. Berger & John E. Garen, 1995. "Do Health Insurance and Pension Costs Reduce the Job Opportunities of Older Workers?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 775-791, July.
  26. Scott J. Adams, 2002. "Passed Over for Promotion Because of Age: An Empirical Analysis of the Consequences," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 23(3), pages 447-461, July.
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