IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Immigrant Labor Market Integration across Admission Classes


  • Bratsberg, Bernt

    () (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)

  • Raaum, Oddbjørn

    () (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)

  • Røed, Knut

    () (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)


We examine patterns of labor market integration across immigrant groups. The study draws on Norwegian longitudinal administrative data covering labor earnings and social insurance claims over a 25-year period and presents a comprehensive picture of immigrant-native employment and social insurance differentials by admission class and by years since entry. For refugees and family immigrants from low-income source countries, we uncover encouraging signs of labor market integration during an initial period upon admission, but after just 5-10 years, the integration process goes into reverse with widening immigrant-native employment differentials and rising rates of immigrant social insurance dependency. Yet, the analysis reveals substantial heterogeneity within admission class and points to an important role of host-country schooling for successful immigrant labor market integration.

Suggested Citation

  • Bratsberg, Bernt & Raaum, Oddbjørn & Røed, Knut, 2017. "Immigrant Labor Market Integration across Admission Classes," IZA Discussion Papers 10513, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10513

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kjetil Storesletten, 2000. "Sustaining Fiscal Policy through Immigration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(2), pages 300-323, April.
    2. Dustmann, Christian & Glitz, Albrecht & Vogel, Thorsten, 2010. "Employment, wages, and the economic cycle: Differences between immigrants and natives," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 1-17, January.
    3. Max Nielsen & Jos Smit & Jordi Guillen, 2009. "Market Integration of Fish in Europe," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(2), pages 367-385.
    4. John Kennan, 2013. "Open Borders," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(2), pages 1-13, April.
    5. Luik, Marc-André & Emilsson, Henrik & Bevelander, Pieter, 2016. "Explaining the Male Native-Immigrant Employment Gap in Sweden: The Role of Human Capital and Migrant Categories," IZA Discussion Papers 9943, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Bernt Bratsberg & Erling Barth & Oddbjørn Raaum, 2006. "Local Unemployment and the Relative Wages of Immigrants: Evidence from the Current Population Surveys," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(2), pages 243-263, May.
    7. Husted, Leif & Skyt Nielsen, Helena & Rosholm, Michael & Smith, Nina, 2000. "Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First Generation Immigrants in Denmark," CLS Working Papers 00-1, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
    8. Christian Dustmann & Francesco Fasani & Tommaso Frattini & Luigi Minale & Uta Schönberg, 2017. "On the economics and politics of refugee migration," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 32(91), pages 497-550.
    9. Mari Rege & Kjetil Telle & Mark Votruba, 2009. "The Effect of Plant Downsizing on Disability Pension Utilization," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(4), pages 754-785, June.
    10. Kalena E. Cortes, 2004. "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 465-480, May.
    11. Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbjørn Raaum & Knut Røed, 2010. "When Minority Labor Migrants Meet the Welfare State," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(3), pages 633-676, July.
    12. Borjas, George J, 1995. "Assimilation and Changes in Cohort Quality Revisited: What Happened to Immigrant Earnings in the 1980s?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(2), pages 201-245, April.
    13. Bratsberg, Bernt & Fevang, Elisabeth & Røed, Knut, 2013. "Job loss and disability insurance," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 137-150.
    14. Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbj¯rn Raaum, 2004. "Identifying Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants under Changing Macroeconomic Conditions," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(1), pages 1-22, March.
    15. Per Lundborg, 2013. "Refugees' Employment Integration in Sweden: Cultural Distance and Labor Market Performance," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 219-232, May.
    16. Michael A. Clemens, 2011. "Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(3), pages 83-106, Summer.
    17. George J. Borjas, 1982. "The Earnings of Male Hispanic Immigrants in the United States," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 35(3), pages 343-353, April.
    18. Cortes, Kalena E., 2004. "Are Refugees Different from Economic Immigrants? Some Empirical Evidence on the Heterogeneity of Immigrant Groups in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 1063, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Dries Lens & Ive Marx & SunÄ ica Vujić, 2017. "Integrating (former) asylum seekers into the Belgian labour market. What can we learn from the recent past?," Working Papers 1710, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    2. Eric Schuss, 2017. "Substantial Labor Market Effects of the Residency Status: How Important are Initial Conditions at Arrival for Immigrants?," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 952, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    3. Francesco Fasani & Tommaso Frattini, 2018. "(The Struggle for) Refugee Integration into the Labour Market: Evidence from Europe," Development Working Papers 435, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano, revised 13 Feb 2018.

    More about this item


    migration; refugees; assimilation; social insurance;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10513. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.