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Essays on fall fertilizer application

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  • Nurmakhanova, Mira
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    Increased use of nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production has contributed to increased food production but also contributed to elevated concentration levels of nitrates in groundwater and surface water. High concentration levels of nitrates in drinking water supplied from groundwater and surface water have become a public concern because of their risks to human health.;One way to reduce nitrogen losses is to develop and apply technologies that enable farmers to more accurately match the amount and timing of fertilizer application to crop growth needs. It is best to apply nitrogen as close as possible to when crop needs it most, proper timing is most important with nitrogen fertilizer. Fall application of nitrogen increases the loss of nitrogen through denitrification, it also gives nitrogen time to leach through the root zone and into groundwater.;The first chapter gives overview of the timing of fertilizer application. The purpose of second chapter is to examine the effect of timing of fertilizer application on total amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied. The goals of the third chapter are twofold. First, it determines which factors influence the use of fall fertilizer application and conservation tillage in a modeling framework that recognizes the interrelationship between the two decisions. Second, it examines the implications of adopting these two practices for nitrogen productivity, which is measured by crop yield. The purpose of the forth paper is to develop a contract schedule to induce land-based nonpoint polluters to choose second-best input vectors for their soil type. Specifically, it concentrates on the issue of fall and spring nitrogen fertilizer application. It is assumed that the environmental agency can monitor the total amount of nitrogen applied; however, it cannot observe amounts of nitrogen applied in the fall and spring. Therefore, in addition to asymmetric information about soil type, this model also takes into account the moral hazard problem which appears because of unobserved actions taken by some farmers.

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    File URL: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=16739&context=rtd
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    Paper provided by Iowa State University, Department of Economics in its series ISU General Staff Papers with number 2008010108000016739.

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    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2008
    Handle: RePEc:isu:genstf:2008010108000016739
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    Iowa State University, Dept. of Economics, 260 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070

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    4. Feinerman, Eli & Kwan, E. & Johnson, Stanley R., 1990. "Uncertainty and Split Nitrogen Application in Corn Production," Staff General Research Papers Archive 328, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    5. Bruce A. Babcock & Alfred M. Blackmer, 1994. "The Ex Post Relationship between Growing Conditions and Optimal Fertilizer Levels," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 16(3), pages 353-362.
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    8. Feinerman, Eli & Choi, E. Kwan & Johnson, Stanley R., 1990. "Uncertainty and Split Nitrogen Application in Corn Production," Staff General Research Papers Archive 10598, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    9. Philippe Bontems & Alban Thomas, 2006. "Regulating Nitrogen Pollution with Risk Averse Farmers under Hidden Information and Moral Hazard," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(1), pages 57-72.
    10. Koop,Gary & Poirier,Dale J. & Tobias,Justin L., 2007. "Bayesian Econometric Methods," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521855716.
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    12. Michael D. Frank & Bruce R. Beattie & Mary E. Embleton, 1990. "A Comparison of Alternative Crop Response Models," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 72(3), pages 597-603.
    13. Boisvert, Richard N. & Peterson, Jeffrey M., 2001. "Control Of Nonpoint Source Pollution Through Voluntary Incentive-Based Policies: An Application To Nitrate Contamination In New York," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 30(2), October.
    14. Eli Feinerman & E. Kwan Choi & Stanley R. Johnson, 1990. "Uncertainty and Split Nitrogen Application in Corn Production," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 72(4), pages 975-985.
    15. Koop,Gary & Poirier,Dale J. & Tobias,Justin L., 2007. "Bayesian Econometric Methods," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521671736.
    16. JunJie Wu & Bruce A. Babcock, 1996. "Contract Design for the Purchase of Environmental Goods from Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(4), pages 935-945.
    17. Smith, Rodney B.W. & Tomasi, Theodore D., 1995. "Transaction Costs And Agricultural Nonpoint-Source Water Pollution Control Policies," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 20(02), December.
    18. Guesnerie, Roger & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1984. "A complete solution to a class of principal-agent problems with an application to the control of a self-managed firm," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 329-369, December.
    19. Satya Yadav & Willis Peterson & K. Easter, 1997. "Do farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer to the detriment of the environment?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 9(3), pages 323-340, April.
    20. Huang, Wen-Yuan & Hewitt, Tracy I. & Shank, David, 1998. "An Analysis Of On-Farm Costs Of Timing N Applications To Reduce N Losses," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(02), December.
    21. Babcock, Bruce A. & Blackmer, A. M., 1994. "Ex Post Relationship Between Growing Conditions and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels (The)," Staff General Research Papers Archive 10582, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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