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On the Segregation of Genetically Modified, Conventional, and Organic Products in European Agriculture: A Multi-Market Equilibrium Analysis

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  • Moschini, GianCarlo
  • Bulut, Harun
  • Cembalo, Luigi

Abstract

Evaluating the possible benefits of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops must address the issue of consumer resistance as well as the complex regulation that has ensued. In the European Union (EU), this regulation envisions the co-existence of GM food with conventional and quality-enhanced products, mandates the labelling and traceability of GM products and allows only a stringent adventitious presence of GM content in other products. All these elements are brought together within a partial equilibrium model of the EU agricultural food sector. The model comprises conventional, GM and organic food. Demand is modelled in a novel fashion, whereby organic and conventional products are treated as horizontally differentiated but GM products are vertically differentiated (weakly inferior) relative to conventional ones. Supply accounts explicitly for the land constraint at the sector level and for the need for additional resources to produce organic food. Model calibration and simulation allow insights into the qualitative and quantitative effects of the large-scale introduction of GM products in the EU market. We find that the introduction of GM food reduces overall EU welfare, mostly because of the associated need for costly segregation of non-GM products, but the producers of quality-enhanced products actually benefit.

Suggested Citation

  • Moschini, GianCarlo & Bulut, Harun & Cembalo, Luigi, 2005. "On the Segregation of Genetically Modified, Conventional, and Organic Products in European Agriculture: A Multi-Market Equilibrium Analysis," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12450, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:12450
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Moschini, Giancarlo, 1998. "The semiflexible almost ideal demand system," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 349-364, February.
    2. Giancarlo Moschini & Harvey Lapan & Andrei Sobolevsky, 2000. "Roundup ready® soybeans and welfare effects in the soybean complex," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(1), pages 33-55.
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    10. Jean Tirole, 1988. "The Theory of Industrial Organization," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262200716, January.
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    14. Giannakas, Konstantinos & Yiannaka, Amalia, 2003. "Agricultural Biotechnology And Organic Agriculture: National Organic Standards, Labeling And Second-Generation Of Gm Products," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22063, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    15. Andrei Sobolevsky & GianCarlo Moschini & Harvey Lapan, 2005. "Genetically Modified Crops and Product Differentiation: Trade and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(3), pages 621-644.
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    Cited by:

    1. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné, 2010. "Trade impact of European measures on GMOs condemned by the WTO panel," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 146(3), pages 495-514, September.
    2. GianCarlo Moschini, 2008. "Biotechnology and the development of food markets: retrospect and prospects," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 35(3), pages 331-355, September.
    3. Marion Desquilbet & Sylvaine Poret, 2014. "How do GM/non GM coexistence regulations affect markets and welfare?," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 51-82, February.
    4. Frisvold, George & Reeves, Jeanne, 0. "Genetically Modified Crops: International Trade And Trade Policy Effects," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 3.
    5. Linda A. Toolsema, 2008. "Competition with Mandatory Labeling of Genetically Modified Products," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 164(3), pages 429-448, September.
    6. Dillen, Koen & Demont, Matty & Tollens, Eric, 2008. "Modelling heterogeneity to estimate the ex ante value of biotechnology innovations," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 43945, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Jonas Kathage & Manuel Gómez-Barbero & Emilio Rodríguez-Cerezo, 2016. "Framework for assessing the socio-economic impacts of Bt maize cultivation," JRC Working Papers JRC103197, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    8. GianCarlo Moschini, 2006. "Pharmaceutical and Industrial Traits in Genetically Modified Crops: Coexistence with Conventional Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1184-1192.
    9. Zhao, Li & Gu, Haiying & Yue, Chengyan & Ahlstrom, David, 2013. "Consumer welfare and GM food labeling: A simulation using an adjusted Kumaraswamy distribution," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 58-70.
    10. William W. Wilson & Xavier Henry & Bruce L. Dahl, 2008. "Costs and risks of conforming to EU traceability requirements: the case of hard red spring wheat," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(1), pages 85-101.
    11. Demont, Matty & Dillen, Koen & Daems, Wim & Sausse, Christophe & Tollens, Eric & Mathijs, Erik, 2009. "On the proportionality of EU spatial ex ante coexistence regulations," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 508-518, December.
    12. Klara Fischer & Camilla Eriksson, 2016. "Social Science Studies on European and African Agriculture Compared: Bringing Together Different Strands of Academic Debate on GM Crops," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-17, August.
    13. Thompson, Wyatt & Meyer, Seth D., 2009. "Simulated Ethanol Transportation Patterns and Costs," Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Transportation Research Forum, vol. 48(1).
    14. Ceddia, M. Graziano & Bartlett, Mark & Perrings, Charles, 2008. "Policies for the regulation of coexistence between GM and conventional crops," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44193, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    15. Colson, Gregory, 2009. "Improving nutrient content through genetic modification: Evidence from experimental auctions on consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for intragenic foods," ISU General Staff Papers 200901010800001872, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    16. Demont, Matty & Daems, W. & Dillen, Koen & Mathijs, Erik & Sausse, C. & Tollens, Eric, 2008. "Are EU spatial ex ante coexistence regulations proportional?," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44191, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Crowe, Bronwyn & Pluske, Johanna M., 2006. "Is it Cost Effective to Segregate Canola in WA?," Australasian Agribusiness Review, University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, vol. 14.
    18. GianCarlo Moschini, 2014. "In Medio Stat Virtus: Coexistence Policies for GM and non-GM Production in Spatial Equilibrium," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 14-wp548, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.

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