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How have hired workers fared? A case study of women workers from an Indian village, 1977 to 1999


  • V.K. Ramachandran

    () (Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta)

  • Madhura Swaminathan

    () (Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta)

  • Vikas Rawal

    () (Centre for Development Studies)


This paper examines certain aspects of employment among women workers in hired labour households, drawing on two surveys of Gokilapuram, a village in south-west Tamil Nadu, India, conducted in 1977 and 1999. The study finds that, first, work participation rates among women were high. Secondly, a woman was able to gain employment in 1999, on average, for only about six months a year. Thirdly, there was a distinct shift between 1977 and 1999 in the composition of total employment available to women Fourthly, while the real wage rate for women at cash-paid, daily-rated crop operations rose significantly between 1977 and 1999, the gender gap in wages widened.

Suggested Citation

  • V.K. Ramachandran & Madhura Swaminathan & Vikas Rawal, 2001. "How have hired workers fared? A case study of women workers from an Indian village, 1977 to 1999," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 323, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.
  • Handle: RePEc:ind:cdswpp:323

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jayaraman, Rajshri & Lanjouw, Peter, 1999. "The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 1-30, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kundu, Amit, 2013. "Effective public policy which can reduce gender discrimination in the agricultural labour market: A theoretical investigation," MPRA Paper 52852, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Oct 2013.

    More about this item


    women; agriculture; wages; work participation rate; Asia; India;

    JEL classification:

    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts


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