Rural Non-Farm Employment in India: Access, Income, Farm, Poverty Impact
Attention has been paid to the significance of the non-farm sector in the rural Indian economy since the early 1970s. The importance of earnings from secondary non-farm occupations is not well documented. In this paper an attempt is made to assess the contribution of the nonfarm sector across population quintiles defined in terms of average per capita income. The correlates of employment in the non-farm sector and the direct impact of a growing non-farm sector on agricultural wage rates in rural India have also been examined. The study is based on rural data from 32,000 households belonging to 1765 villages across all parts of India collected by the National Council of Applied Economic Research in 1993-94. Analysis shows that non-farm incomes account for a significant proportion of household income in rural India with considerable variation across quintiles and across major Indian states. Education, wealth, caste, village level agricultural conditions, population densities and other regional effects influence in determining the access to non-farm occupations. Direct contribution of the nonfarm sector to poverty reduction is possibly quite muted as the poor lack the assets. It has also been found that the growth of certain non-farm sub-sectors is strongly associated with higher agricultural wage rates. The analysis presented in this study suggests that the policy makers seeking to maximise the impact of an expanding non-farm sector on rural poverty, should concentrate on two fronts. First, efforts should be focused on removing the barriers to the entry of the poor into the non-farm sector. This involves improving the educational level in rural areas. Second, the policy makers should note the strong evidence of an impact on agricultural wages of the expansion in rural construction employment. [WP No. 81]
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hazell, Peter B. & Haggblade, Steven, 1990. "Rural - urban growth linkages in India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 430, The World Bank.
- Abhijit Banerjee & Kaivan Munshi, 2000. "Networks, Migration and Investment: Insiders and Outsiders in Tirupur's Production Cluster," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 313, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998.
"Farm productivity and rural poverty in India,"
FCND discussion papers
42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Jolliffe, Dean, 1998. "Skills, Schooling, and Household Income in Ghana," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 81-104, January.
- Martin Ravallion & Gaurav Datt, 1996. "India's Checkered History in Fight against Poverty: Are There Lessons for the Future?," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-33, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- Vijverberg, W., 1988. "Profits From Self-Employment - A Case Study Of Cote D'Ivoire," Papers 43, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Haggblade, Steven & Liedholm, Carl & Mead, Donald C., 1986. "The Effect of Policy and Policy Reforms on Non-Agricultural Enterprises and Employment in Developing Countries: A Review of Past Experiences," Food Security International Development Working Papers 54744, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
- Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav, 1996. "How Important to India's Poor Is the Sectoral Composition of Economic Growth?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-25, January.
- Jayraman, Raji & Lanjouw, Peter, 1998.
"The evolution of poverty and inequality in Indian villages,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1870, The World Bank.
- Jayaraman, Rajshri & Lanjouw, Peter, 1999. "The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 1-30, February.
- repec:pri:rpdevs:deaton_tarozzi_prices_poverty is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:913. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Padma Prakash)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.