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The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages

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  • Jayaraman, Rajshri
  • Lanjouw, Peter

Abstract

This paper examines the evolution of poverty and inequality in rural India by reviewing longitudinal village studies. It explores the main forces of economic change -- agricultural intensification, changing land relations, and occupational diversification -- from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives, and it considers the roles of various institutions as conduits of change. Although most village studies support the survey-based judgment that rural poverty declined in India during the 1970s and 1980s, they find that progress has been slow and irregular and that inequalities within villages have persisted. These continued inequalities may constrain both the scope for further poverty reduction from economic growth and the impact of policy interventions. Copyright 1999 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Jayaraman, Rajshri & Lanjouw, Peter, 1999. "The Evolution of Poverty and Inequality in Indian Villages," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 1-30, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:wbrobs:v:14:y:1999:i:1:p:1-30
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Baland, Jean-Marie & Dreze, Jean & Leruth, Luc, 1999. "Daily wages and piece rates in agrarian economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 445-461, August.
    2. Judith Heyer, 1992. "The role of dowries and daughters' marriages in the accumulation and distribution of capital in a South Indian Community," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(4), pages 419-436, July.
    3. Naresh Sharma & Jean Dreze, 1996. "Sharecropping in a North Indian Village," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1), pages 1-39.
    4. Bhatia, B,, 1992. "Lush Fields and Parched Throats: The political economy of Growndwater in Gujarat," Research Paper 100, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
    5. Lanjouw, Peter & Stern, Nicholas, 1998. "Economic Development in Palanpur over Five Decades," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288329.
    6. Arindam Banik, 1993. "Structure of the Credit Market and its link with the other Markets-An Analysis of Village Survey Data in Bangladesh," Indian Economic Review, Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 55-71, January.
    7. Bliss, C. J. & Stern, N. H., 1982. "Palanpur: The Economy of an Indian Village," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198284192.
    8. Martin Ravallion & Gaurav Datt, 1996. "India's Checkered History in Fight against Poverty: Are There Lessons for the Future?," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-33, Monash University, Department of Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Peter Lanjouw & Rinku Murgai, 2009. "Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and nonfarm employment in rural India: 1983-2004," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 243-263, March.
    2. Valbuena, Diego & Tui, Sabine Homann-Kee & Erenstein, Olaf & Teufel, Nils & Duncan, Alan & Abdoulaye, Tahirou & Swain, Braja & Mekonnen, Kindu & Germaine, Ibro & GĂ©rard, Bruno, 2015. "Identifying determinants, pressures and trade-offs of crop residue use in mixed smallholder farms in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 107-118.
    3. Estudillo, Jonna P. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2001. "Income distribution in rice-growing villages during the post-Green Revolution periods: the Philippine case, 1985 and 1998," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 25(1), June.
    4. repec:eee:deveco:v:131:y:2018:i:c:p:42-61 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Parker, Barbara & Kozel, Valerie, 2007. "Understanding Poverty and Vulnerability in India's Uttar Pradesh and Bihar: A Q-squared Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 296-311, February.
    6. Satish, P., 2007. "Rural Infrastructure and Growth: An Overview," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, vol. 62(1).
    7. John Sender, 2000. "Struggles To Escape Poverty In South Africa: Results From A Purposive Rural Survey," Working Papers 107, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK.
    8. Peter Lanjouw & Abusaleh Shariff & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2007. "Rural Non-Farm Employment in India: Access, Income, Farm, Poverty Impact," Working Papers id:913, eSocialSciences.
    9. V.K. Ramachandran & Madhura Swaminathan & Vikas Rawal, 2001. "How have hired workers fared? A case study of women workers from an Indian village, 1977 to 1999," Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum Working Papers 323, Centre for Development Studies, Trivendrum, India.
    10. repec:eee:agiwat:v:191:y:2017:i:c:p:207-217 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Hentschel, Jesko, 1998. "Distinguishing between types of data and methods of collecting them," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1914, The World Bank.
    12. Krishna, Anirudh, 2004. "Escaping Poverty and Becoming Poor: Who Gains, Who Loses, and Why?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 121-136, January.
    13. Kapur Mehta, Aasha & Shah, Amita, 2003. "Chronic Poverty in India: Incidence, Causes and Policies," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 491-511, March.
    14. Das Gupta, Monica & Grandvoinnet, Helene & Romani, Mattia, 2000. "State-community synergies in development : laying the basis for collective action," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2439, The World Bank.
    15. Anirudh Krishna, 2005. "Poverty Knowledge and Poverty Action: Evidence from Three States in India," Working Papers id:274, eSocialSciences.

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