IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/imf/imfwpa/2019-045.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

How Effective is Macroprudential Policy? Evidence from Lending Restriction Measures in EU Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Mr. Tigran Poghosyan

Abstract

This paper assesses the effectiveness of lending restriction measures, such as loan-to-value and debt-service-to-income ratios, in affecting developments in house prices and credit. We use data on 99 lending standard restrictions implemented in 28 EU countries over 1990–2018. The results suggest that lending restriction measures are generally effective in curbing house prices and credit. However, the impact is delayed and reaches its peak only after three years. In addition, the impact is asymmetric, with tightening measures having weaker association with target variables compared to loosening measures. The association is stronger in countries outside of euro area and for legally-binding measures and measures involving sanctions. The results have practical implications for macroprudential authorities.

Suggested Citation

  • Mr. Tigran Poghosyan, 2019. "How Effective is Macroprudential Policy? Evidence from Lending Restriction Measures in EU Countries," IMF Working Papers 2019/045, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2019/045
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=46640
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Akinci, Ozge & Olmstead-Rumsey, Jane, 2018. "How effective are macroprudential policies? An empirical investigation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 33-57.
    2. Cerutti, Eugenio & Dagher, Jihad & Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni, 2017. "Housing finance and real-estate booms: A cross-country perspective," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 1-13.
    3. Kuttner, Kenneth N. & Shim, Ilhyock, 2016. "Can non-interest rate policies stabilize housing markets? Evidence from a panel of 57 economies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 31-44.
    4. Bruno, Valentina & Shim, Ilhyock & Shin, Hyun Song, 2017. "Comparative assessment of macroprudential policies," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 183-202.
    5. Richter, Björn & Schularick, Moritz & Shim, Ilhyock, 2019. "The costs of macroprudential policy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 263-282.
    6. Fendoğlu, Salih, 2017. "Credit cycles and capital flows: Effectiveness of the macroprudential policy framework in emerging market economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 110-128.
    7. Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 1989. "Does Monetary Policy Matter? A New Test in the Spirit of Friedman and Schwartz," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1989, Volume 4, pages 121-184, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Cerutti, Eugenio & Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2017. "The use and effectiveness of macroprudential policies: New evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 203-224.
    9. Lo Duca, Marco & Koban, Anne & Basten, Marisa & Bengtsson, Elias & Klaus, Benjamin & Kusmierczyk, Piotr & Lang, Jan Hannes & Detken, Carsten & Peltonen, Tuomas, 2017. "A new database for financial crises in European countries," Occasional Paper Series 194, European Central Bank.
    10. Ms. Deniz O Igan & Mr. Heedon Kang, 2011. "Do Loan-To-Value and Debt-To-Income Limits Work? Evidence From Korea," IMF Working Papers 2011/297, International Monetary Fund.
    11. de Araujo, Douglas Kiarelly Godoy & Barroso, Joao Barata Ribeiro Blanco & Gonzalez, Rodrigo Barbone, 2020. "Loan-to-value policy and housing finance: Effects on constrained borrowers," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 42(C).
    12. Ms. Longmei Zhang & Ms. Edda Zoli, 2014. "Leaning Against the Wind: Macroprudential Policy in Asia," IMF Working Papers 2014/022, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Carreras, Oriol & Davis, E. Philip & Piggott, Rebecca, 2018. "Assessing macroprudential tools in OECD countries within a cointegration framework," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 112-130.
    14. Stijn Claessens, 2015. "An Overview of Macroprudential Policy Tools," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 397-422, December.
    15. Jérôme Vandenbussche & Ursula Vogel & Enrica Detragiache, 2015. "Macroprudential Policies and Housing Prices: A New Database and Empirical Evidence for Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(S1), pages 343-377, March.
    16. João Barata R B Barroso & Rodrigo Barbone Gonzalez & Bernardus F Nazar Van Doornik, 2017. "Credit supply responses to reserve requirement: loan-level evidence from macroprudential policy," BIS Working Papers 674, Bank for International Settlements.
    17. Horacio A Aguirre & Gastón Repetto, 2017. "Capital and currency-based macroprudential policies: an evaluation using credit registry data," BIS Working Papers 672, Bank for International Settlements.
    18. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Maurice Obstfeld, 2012. "Stories of the Twentieth Century for the Twenty-First," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 226-265, January.
    19. Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2014. "Does Macro‐Prudential Regulation Leak? Evidence from a UK Policy Experiment," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(s1), pages 181-214, February.
    20. Jed Armstrong & Hayden Skilling & Fang Yao, 2018. "Loan-to-Value Ratio Restrictions and House Prices," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2018/05, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
    21. Reinhardt, Dennis & Sowerbutts, Rhiannon, 2015. "Regulatory arbitrage in action: evidence from banking flows and macroprudential policy," Bank of England working papers 546, Bank of England.
    22. Budnik, Katarzyna & Kleibl, Johannes, 2018. "Macroprudential regulation in the European Union in 1995-2014: introducing a new data set on policy actions of a macroprudential nature," Working Paper Series 2123, European Central Bank.
    23. International Monetary Fund, 2011. "Macroprudential Policy: What Instruments and How to Use them? Lessons From Country Experiences," IMF Working Papers 2011/238, International Monetary Fund.
    24. Mr. Ashvin Ahuja & Mr. Malhar S Nabar, 2011. "Safeguarding Banks and Containing Property Booms: Cross-Country Evidenceon Macroprudential Policies and Lessons From Hong Kong SAR," IMF Working Papers 2011/284, International Monetary Fund.
    25. Òscar Jordà, 2005. "Estimation and Inference of Impulse Responses by Local Projections," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 161-182, March.
    26. Mr. Luis Ignacio Jácome & Ms. Srobona Mitra, 2015. "LTV and DTI Limits—Going Granular," IMF Working Papers 2015/154, International Monetary Fund.
    27. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "What Do We Know About the Effects of Macroprudential Policy?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 85(340), pages 735-770, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jorge E. Galán, 2020. "The benefits are at the tail: uncovering the impact of macroprudential policy on growth-at-risk," Working Papers 2007, Banco de España.
    2. Nakatani, Ryota, 2020. "Macroprudential policy and the probability of a banking crisis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1169-1186.
    3. De Schryder, Selien & Opitz, Frederic, 2021. "Macroprudential policy and its impact on the credit cycle," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    4. Stanga, Irina & Vlahu, Razvan & de Haan, Jakob, 2020. "Mortgage arrears, regulation and institutions: Cross-country evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 118(C).
    5. Elien Meuleman & Rudi Vander Vennet, 2020. "Macroprudential policy, monetary policy and Eurozone bank risk," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 20/1004, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    6. Ekinci, Mehmet Fatih & Özcan, Gülserim, 2022. "Macroprudential policies and current account balance," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 768-777.
    7. Erlend Nier & Mr. Heedon Kang & Mr. Machiko Narita & Mr. Adrian Alter & Naixi Wang & Zohair Alam & Jesse Eiseman & Mr. R. G Gelos, 2019. "Digging Deeper--Evidence on the Effects of Macroprudential Policies from a New Database," IMF Working Papers 2019/066, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Bajzik, Josef & Havranek, Tomas & Kolcunova, Dominika, 2021. "When Does Monetary Policy Sway House Prices? A Meta-Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 16196, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Gennaro Catapano & Francesco Franceschi & Valentina Michelangeli & Michele Loberto, 2021. "Macroprudential Policy Analysis via an Agent Based Model of the Real Estate Sector," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1338, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    10. José A. Carrasco-Gallego, 2020. "Real Estate, Economic Stability and the New Macro-Financial Policies," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(1), pages 1-19, December.
    11. Adina CRISTE & Iulia LUPU, 2021. "A Comparative Analysis of Macroprudential Policy across Euro Area Candidate Countries," Applied Finance and Accounting, Redfame publishing, vol. 7(1), pages 10-21, February.
    12. Simona Malovana & Martin Hodula & Zuzana Gric & Josef Bajzik, 2022. "Borrower-Based Macroprudential Measures and Credit Growth: How Biased is the Existing Literature?," Working Papers 2022/8, Czech National Bank.
    13. Chen, Yunping & Chen, Huanhuan & Li, Guorong & Jiao, Dongdan & Xu, Xiangyun, 2021. "Time-varying effect of macro-prudential policies on household credit growth: Evidence from China," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 241-254.
    14. Marcin Czaplicki, 2022. "Measuring the restrictiveness of (macro)prudential policy: the case of bank capital regulation in Poland," Journal of Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(3), pages 322-338, September.
    15. Olszak, Małgorzata & Kowalska, Iwona, 2022. "Does bank competition matter for the effects of macroprudential policy on the procyclicality of lending?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    16. Eva Lorencic & Mejra Festic, 2022. "The impact of macroprudential policy on financial stability in selected EU countries," Public Sector Economics, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 46(1), pages 141-170.
    17. Lorenčič Eva & Festić Mejra, 2021. "The Impact of Seven Macroprudential Policy Instruments on Financial Stability in Six Euro Area Economies," Review of Economic Perspectives, Sciendo, vol. 21(3), pages 259-290, September.
    18. Ma³gorzata Olszak & Iwona Kowalska, 2021. "Does bank competition matter for the effects of macroprudential policy on procyclicality of lending?," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 22021, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    19. Lara Coulier & Selien De Schryder, 2022. "Assessing the Effects of Borrower-Based Macroprudential Policy on Credit in the EU Using Intensity-Based Indices," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 22/1044, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    20. Kang, Qiaoling & Wu, Ji & Chen, Minghua & Jeon, Bang Nam, 2021. "Do macroprudential policies affect the bank financing of firms in China? Evidence from a quantile regression approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    21. Dimitris Mokas & Massimo Giuliodori, 2021. "Effects of LTV announcements in EU economies," Working Papers 704, DNB.
    22. Albertazzi, Ugo & Martin, Alberto & Assouan, Emmanuelle & Tristani, Oreste & Galati, Gabriele & Vlassopoulos, Thomas & Adolf, Petra & Kok, Christoffer & Altavilla, Carlo & Lewis, Vivien & Andreeva, De, 2021. "The role of financial stability considerations in monetary policy and the interaction with macroprudential policy in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 272, European Central Bank.
    23. Ćehajić, Aida & Košak, Marko, 2022. "Bank lending and small and medium-sized enterprises’ access to finance – Effects of macroprudential policies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 124(C).
    24. Jorge E. Galán & Matías Lamas, 2019. "Beyond the LTV ratio: new macroprudential lessons from Spain," Working Papers 1931, Banco de España.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. De Schryder, Selien & Opitz, Frederic, 2021. "Macroprudential policy and its impact on the credit cycle," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 53(C).
    2. Mr. Fabian Valencia & Ms. Juliana Dutra Araujo & Ms. Adina Popescu & Manasa Patnam & Weijia Yao, 2020. "Effects of Macroprudential Policy: Evidence from Over 6,000 Estimates," IMF Working Papers 2020/067, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Dimitris Mokas & Massimo Giuliodori, 2021. "Effects of LTV announcements in EU economies," Working Papers 704, DNB.
    4. Kang, Qiaoling & Wu, Ji & Chen, Minghua & Jeon, Bang Nam, 2021. "Do macroprudential policies affect the bank financing of firms in China? Evidence from a quantile regression approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    5. Marcin Czaplicki, 2022. "Measuring the restrictiveness of (macro)prudential policy: the case of bank capital regulation in Poland," Journal of Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(3), pages 322-338, September.
    6. Alvaro Fernandez-Gallardo & Ivan Paya, 2020. "Macroprudential Policy in the Euro Area," Working Papers 307121127, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    7. Ely, Regis Augusto & Tabak, Benjamin Miranda & Teixeira, Anderson Mutter, 2019. "Heterogeneous effects of the implementation of macroprudential policies on bank risk," MPRA Paper 94546, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Meuleman, Elien & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2020. "Macroprudential policy and bank systemic risk," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    9. Apergis, Nicholas & Aysan, Ahmet F. & Bakkar, Yassine, 2022. "Borrower- and lender-based macroprudential policies: What works best against bank systemic risk?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    10. Eugenio Cerutti & Ricardo Correa & Elisabetta Fiorentino & Esther Segalla, 2017. "Changes in Prudential Policy Instruments - A New Cross-Country Database," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(2), pages 477-503, March.
    11. Kumar, Sanjiv & Prabheesh, K.P. & Bashar, Omar, 2022. "Examining the effectiveness of macroprudential policy in India," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 91-113.
    12. Ghosh, Atish R. & Ostry, Jonathan D. & Qureshi, Mahvash S., 2018. "Taming the Tide of Capital Flows: A Policy Guide," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262037165.
    13. Kristin J. Forbes, 2020. "The International Aspects of Macroprudential Policy," NBER Working Papers 27698, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Cerutti, Eugenio & Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2017. "The use and effectiveness of macroprudential policies: New evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 203-224.
    15. Oriol Carreras & E Philip Davis & Rebecca Piggott, 2016. "Macroprudential tools, transmission and modelling," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 470, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
    16. Chen, Yunping & Chen, Huanhuan & Li, Guorong & Jiao, Dongdan & Xu, Xiangyun, 2021. "Time-varying effect of macro-prudential policies on household credit growth: Evidence from China," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 241-254.
    17. Ely, Regis A. & Tabak, Benjamin M. & Teixeira, Anderson M., 2021. "The transmission mechanisms of macroprudential policies on bank risk," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 598-630.
    18. Jérôme Vandenbussche & Piyabha Kongsamut & Dilyana Dimova, 2018. "Macroprudential Policy Effectiveness: Lessons from Southeastern Europe," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 1(9), pages 60-102, May.
    19. Fendoğlu, Salih, 2017. "Credit cycles and capital flows: Effectiveness of the macroprudential policy framework in emerging market economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 110-128.
    20. Yavuz Arslan and Christian Upper, 2017. "Macroprudential frameworks: implementation and effectiveness," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Macroprudential frameworks, implementation and relationship with other policies, volume 94, pages 25-47, Bank for International Settlements.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    WP; macroprudential regulation; financial stability; credit; house prices; monetary policy rate; restriction measure; target variable; house price growth; lending restriction measure; number of observation; property price growth; credit growth; Housing prices; Central bank policy rate; Macroprudential policy instruments; Foreign banks; Global;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • E65 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2019/045. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/imfffus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Akshay Modi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/imfffus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.