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Federal Reserve Tools for Managing Rates and Reserves

Author

Listed:
  • Antoine Martin

    (Federal Reserve Bank of New York (E-mail: antoine.martin@ny.frb.org))

  • James McAndrews

    (Federal Reserve Bank of New York (E-mail: jamie.mcandrews@ny.frb.org))

  • Ali Palida

    (Federal Reserve Bank of New York (E-mail: ali.palida@ny.frb.org))

  • David Skeie

    (Federal Reserve Bank of New York (E-mail: david.skeie@ny.frb.org))

Abstract

Monetary policy measures taken by the Federal Reserve as a response to the 2007-09 financial crisis and subsequent economic downturn led to a large increase in the level of outstanding reserves. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has a range of tools to control short-term market interest rates in this situation. We study several of these tools, namely interest on excess reserves (IOER), reverse repurchase agreements (RRPs), and the term deposit facility (TDF). We find that overnight RRPs (ON RRPs) provide a better floor on rates than term RRPs because they are available to absorb daily liquidity shocks. Whether the TDF or RRPs best support equilibrium rates depends on the relative intensity of the frictions that banks face, which are bank balance sheet costs and interbank monitoring costs in our model. We show that when both costs are large, using the RRP and TDF concurrently most effectively raises short- term rates. While public money supplied by the Federal Reserve in the form of reserves can alleviate bank liquidity shocks by reducing interbank lending costs, large levels of reserve increase banks' balance sheet size and can induce greater bank moral hazard. RRPs can reduce levels of costly bank equity that banks are endogenously required to hold as a commitment device against risk-shifting returns on assets.

Suggested Citation

  • Antoine Martin & James McAndrews & Ali Palida & David Skeie, 2015. "Federal Reserve Tools for Managing Rates and Reserves," IMES Discussion Paper Series 15-E-08, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
  • Handle: RePEc:ime:imedps:15-e-08
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    File URL: http://www.imes.boj.or.jp/research/papers/english/15-E-08.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Todd Keister & James J. McAndrews, 2009. "Why are banks holding so many excess reserves?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 15(Dec).
    2. Xavier Freixas & Antoine Martin & David Skeie, 2011. "Bank Liquidity, Interbank Markets, and Monetary Policy," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(8), pages 2656-2692.
    3. Huberto M. Ennis & Todd Keister, 2008. "Understanding monetary policy implementation," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, vol. 94(Sum), pages 235-263.
    4. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Private and Public Supply of Liquidity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(1), pages 1-40, February.
    5. William Poole, 1969. "Optimal choice of monetary policy instruments in a simple stochastic macro model," Special Studies Papers 2, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    6. R. Spence Hilton, 2005. "Trends in federal funds rate volatility," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 11(Jul).
    7. Antoine Martin & James McAndrews & David Skeie, 2016. "Bank Lending in Times of Large Bank Reserves," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 193-222, December.
    8. Bech, Morten L. & Klee, Elizabeth, 2011. "The mechanics of a graceful exit: Interest on reserves and segmentation in the federal funds market," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(5), pages 415-431.
    9. Todd Keister & Antoine Martin & James J. McAndrews, 2008. "Divorcing money from monetary policy," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 14(Sep), pages 41-56.
    10. Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 2012. "The Optimal Conduct of Monetary Policy with Interest on Reserves," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 266-282, January.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    monetary policy; fixed-rate full allocation overnight reverse repurchases; term deposit facility; interest on excess reserves; FOMC; banking;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General

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