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Incomplete Information Bargaining with Outside Opportunities

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  • Tirole, Jean
  • Levine, David
  • Fudenberg, Drew

Abstract

We consider two kinds of ‘outside opportunity’ that a seller of an indivisible good might have: selling to a different buyer and consuming the good herself. In both models the seller is uncertain about the buyer's valuation, and becomes more pessimistic over time. When the seller becomes sufficiently pessimistic, she prefers the outside opportunity, so she will not bargain indefinitely with the current buyer. Despite the resulting finite-horizon nature of negotiations, the link between the buyer's willingness to accept an offer and the seller's eagerness to go "outside" generates multiple equilibria.

Suggested Citation

  • Tirole, Jean & Levine, David & Fudenberg, Drew, 1987. "Incomplete Information Bargaining with Outside Opportunities," Scholarly Articles 3196301, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hrv:faseco:3196301
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kreps, David M & Wilson, Robert, 1982. "Sequential Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 863-894, July.
    2. John Riley & Richard Zeckhauser, 1983. "Optimal Selling Strategies: When to Haggle, When to Hold Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 267-289.
    3. Bulow, Jeremy I, 1982. "Durable-Goods Monopolists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(2), pages 314-332, April.
    4. Gul, Faruk & Sonnenschein, Hugo & Wilson, Robert, 1986. "Foundations of dynamic monopoly and the coase conjecture," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 155-190, June.
    5. Coase, Ronald H, 1972. "Durability and Monopoly," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 143-149, April.
    6. Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 1983. "Sequential Bargaining with Incomplete Information," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(2), pages 221-247.
    7. Drew Fudenberg & David Levine & Jean Tirole, 1985. "Sequential Bargaining with Many Buyers," Working papers 366, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    8. Shaked, Avner & Sutton, John, 1984. "Involuntary Unemployment as a Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(6), pages 1351-1364, November.
    9. Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine & Jean Tirole, 1985. "Infinite-Horizon Models of Bargaining with One-Sided Incomplete Information," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1098, David K. Levine.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Schweinzer, Paul, 2006. "Sequential bargaining with pure common values," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 137, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    2. Santiago Sanchez-Pages, 2009. "Bargaining and Conflict with Incomplete Information," ESE Discussion Papers 191, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
    3. Castillo, Marco & Petrie, Ragan & Torero, Maximo & Vesterlund, Lise, 2013. "Gender differences in bargaining outcomes: A field experiment on discrimination," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 35-48.
    4. Bester, H., 1991. "Bargaining vs. price competition in a market with quality uncertainty," Discussion Paper 1991-13, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    5. Luca Anderlini & Leonardo Felli, 1998. "Costly Bargaining and Renegotiation - (Now published in Econometrica, 69(4) (March 2001), pp. 377-411.)," STICERD - Theoretical Economics Paper Series 361, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    6. Calvo-Armengol, Antoni, 1999. "A note on three-player noncooperative bargaining with restricted pairwise meetings," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 47-54, October.
    7. Chemla, G. & Faure-Grimaud, A., 1996. "Dynamic Adverse Selection and Debt," Papers 96.443, Toulouse - GREMAQ.
    8. Randolph Sloof, 2003. "Price-setting Power versus Private Information," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-099/1, Tinbergen Institute.
    9. G. Chemla, 1999. "L'impact de la négociation et des prises de contrôle sur l'ampleur de l 'effet de Cliquet," THEMA Working Papers 99-19, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    10. Schweinzer, Paul, 2010. "Sequential bargaining with common values," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 109-121, January.
    11. Yerokhin Oleg, 2011. "The Social Cost of Blackmail," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 7(1), pages 337-351, December.
    12. Gilles Chemla, 1998. "Dynamic Adverse Selection and Debt," FMG Discussion Papers dp288, Financial Markets Group.
    13. Chatterjee, Kalyan & Lee, Ching Chyi, 1998. "Bargaining and Search with Incomplete Information about Outside Options," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 203-237, February.
    14. Adachi, Mitsutoshi M., 1999. "On the choice of pricing policies: Ex ante commitment and prisoners' dilemma," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(9), pages 1647-1663, October.
    15. Chatterjee, Kalyan & Dutta, Bhaskar, 2006. "Markets with Bilateral Bargaining and Incomplete Information," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 762, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    16. Sandro Shelegia & Joshua Sherman, 2014. "When the Price You See Is Not the Price You Get: A Bargaining Study," Vienna Economics Papers 1410, University of Vienna, Department of Economics.
    17. repec:spr:grdene:v:6:y:1997:i:6:d:10.1023_a:1008684225781 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Roman Inderst, 2008. "Dynamic Bilateral Bargaining under Private Information with a Sequence of Potential Buyers," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(1), pages 220-236, January.
    19. repec:gam:jgames:v:8:y:2017:i:4:p:44-:d:115367 is not listed on IDEAS

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