The Vulnerability of Minority Homeowners in the Housing Boom and Bust
This paper examines mortgage outcomes for a large, representative sample of individual home purchases and refinances linked to credit scores in seven major US markets in the recent housing boom and bust. We find that among those with similar credit scores, black and Hispanic homeowners had much higher rates of delinquency and default in the downturn. These differences are not explained by the likelihood of receiving a subprime loan or by differential exposure to local shocks in the housing and labor market and are especially pronounced for loans originated near the peak of the boom. There is also heterogeneity within minorities: black and Hispanics that live in areas with lower employment rates and that have high debt to income ratios are the driving force of the observed racial differences in foreclosures and delinquencies. Our findings suggest that those black and Hispanic homeowners drawn into the market near the peak were especially vulnerable to adverse economic shocks and raise serious concerns about homeownership as a mechanism for reducing racial disparities in wealth.
|Date of creation:||Mar 2014|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.hceconomics.org/|
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Andrew Haughwout & Donghoon Lee & Joseph Tracy & Wilbert van der Klaauw, 2011. "Real estate investors, the leverage cycle, and the housing market crisis," Staff Reports 514, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Robert M. Townsend, .
"Risk and Insurance in Village India,"
University of Chicago - Population Research Center
91-3a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Gyourko, Joseph & Linneman, Peter & Wachter, Susan, 1999. "Analyzing the Relationships among Race, Wealth, and Home Ownership in America," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 63-89, June.
- Kristopher Gerardi & Adam Hale Shapiro & Paul S. Willen, 2007.
"Subprime outcomes: risky mortgages, homeownership experiences, and foreclosures,"
07-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Paul S. Willen & Adam Hale Shapiro & Kristopher Gerardi, 2008. "Subprime Outcomes: Risky Mortgages, Homeownership Experiences, and Foreclosures," 2008 Meeting Papers 345, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn Canner, 2012. "Does Credit Scoring Produce a Disparate Impact?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 40, pages S65-S114, December.
- Joseph Gyourko & Joseph Tracy, 2013. "Unemloyment and Unobserved Credit Risk in the FHA Single Family Mortgage Insurance Fund," NBER Working Papers 18880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brueckner, Jan K., 1986. "The downpayment constraint and housing tenure choice : A simplified exposition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 519-525, November.
- Gerardi Kristopher & Willen Paul, 2009.
"Subprime Mortgages, Foreclosures, and Urban Neighborhoods,"
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy,
De Gruyter, vol. 9(3), pages 1-37, March.
- Kristopher S. Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2008. "Subprime mortgages, foreclosures, and urban neighborhoods," Public Policy Discussion Paper 08-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Kristopher S. Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2009. "Subprime mortgages, foreclosures, and urban neighborhoods," Working Paper 2009-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Foote, Christopher L. & Gerardi, Kristopher & Willen, Paul S., 2008.
"Negative equity and foreclosure: Theory and evidence,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 234-245, September.
- Christopher L. Foote & Kristopher Gerardi & Paul S. Willen, 2008. "Negative equity and foreclosure: theory and evidence," Public Policy Discussion Paper 08-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Amin, S. & Rai, A.S. & Topa, G., 1999.
"Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangldesh,"
99-06, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Amin, Sajeda & Rai, Ashok S. & Topa, Giorgio, 2003. "Does microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from northern Bangladesh," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 59-82, February.
- Sajeda Amin & Ashok S. Rai & Giorgio Topa, 1999. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh," CID Working Papers 28, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Amin, S. & Rai, A.S. & Topa, G., 2000. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Nothern Bangladesh," Papers 28, Chicago - Graduate School of Business.
- Robert B. Avery & Glenn B. Canner & Robert E. Cook, 2005. "New information reported under HMDA and its application in fair lending enforcement," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Sum, pages 344-394.
- Kerwin Kofi Charles & Erik Hurst, 2002. "The Transition To Home Ownership And The Black-White Wealth Gap," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 281-297, May.
- Hilary Hoynes & Douglas L. Miller & Jessamyn Schaller, 2012.
"Who Suffers during Recessions?,"
Journal of Economic Perspectives,
American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 27-48, Summer.
- Marsha J. Courchane, 2007. "The Pricing of Home Mortgage Loans to Minority Borrowers: How Much of the APR Differential Can We Explain?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 29(4), pages 399-440.
- Hayashi, Fumio & Altonji, Joseph & Kotlikoff, Laurence, 1996. "Risk-Sharing between and within Families," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 261-94, March.
- Clapp, John M. & Nanda, Anupam & Ross, Stephen L., 2008.
"Which school attributes matter? The influence of school district performance and demographic composition on property values,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 451-466, March.
- John M. Clapp & Anupam Nanda & Stephen L. Ross, 2005. "Which School Attributes Matter? The Influence of School District Performance and Demographic Composition on Property Values," Working papers 2005-26, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2007.
- Roberto G. Quercia & George W. McCarthy & Susan M. Wachter, .
"The Impacts of Affordable Lending Efforts on Home Ownership Rates,"
Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers
304, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
- Quercia, Roberto G. & McCarthy, George W. & Wachter, Susan M., 2003. "The impacts of affordable lending efforts on homeownership rates," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-59, March.
- Roberto G. Quercia & George W. McCarthy & Susan M. Wachter, . "The Impacts Of Affordable Lending Efforts On Homeownership Rates," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 405, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
- Christopher J. Mayer & Karen Pence, 2008. "Subprime Mortgages: What, Where, and to Whom?," NBER Working Papers 14083, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lynn Fisher & Lauren Lambie-Hanson & Paul S. Willen, 2010. "A profile of the mortgage crisis in a low-and-moderate-income community," Public Policy Discussion Paper 10-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Engelhardt, Gary V, 1996. "Consumption, Down Payments, and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(2), pages 255-71, May.
- Duca, John V. & Rosenthal, Stuart S., 1994. "Borrowing constraints and access to owner-occupied housing," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 301-322, June.
- Terrell, Henry S, 1971. "Wealth Accumulation of Black and White Families: The Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 363-77, May.
- Chris Mayer & Karen Pence, 2008. "Subprime mortgages: what, where, and to whom?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2010. "Does credit scoring produce a disparate impact?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2010-58, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hka:wpaper:2014-006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jennifer Pachon)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.