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The Pricing of Home Mortgage Loans to Minority Borrowers: How Much of the APR Differential Can We Explain?

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  • Marsha J. Courchane

    () (Vice President, Litigation and Applied Economics, CRA International)

Abstract

The public releases of the 2004 and 2005 HMDA data have engendered a lively debate over the pricing of mortgage credit and its implications regarding the treatment of minority mortgage borrowers. This research uses aggregated proprietary data provided by lenders and an endogenous switching regression model to estimate the probability of taking out a subprime mortgage, and annual percentage rate (APR) conditional on getting either a subprime or prime mortgage. The findings reveal that up to 90% of the African American APR gap, and 85% of the Hispanic APR gap, is attributable to observable differences in underwriting, costing, and market factors that appropriately explain mortgage pricing differentials. Although any potential discrimination is problematic and should be addressed, the analysis suggests that little of the aggregate differences in APRs paid by minority and non-minority borrowers are appropriately attributed to differential treatment.

Suggested Citation

  • Marsha J. Courchane, 2007. "The Pricing of Home Mortgage Loans to Minority Borrowers: How Much of the APR Differential Can We Explain?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 29(4), pages 399-440.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:29:n:4:2007:p:399-440
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Marsha J. Courchane & Brian J. Surette & Peter M. Zorn, 2004. "Subprime Borrowers: Mortgage Transitions and Outcomes," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 365-392, December.
    2. Stephen L. Ross & John Yinger, 2002. "The Color of Credit: Mortgage Discrimination, Research Methodology, and Fair-Lending Enforcement," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262182289, January.
    3. Michael Lokshin & Zurab Sajaia, 2004. "Maximum likelihood estimation of endogenous switching regression models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(3), pages 282-289, September.
    4. Anthony M.J. Yezer & Robert F. Phillips & Robert P. Trost, 1994. "Bias in estimates of discrimination and default in mortgage lending: the effects of simultaneity and self-selection," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, pages 197-222.
    5. Jim Berkovec & Peter Zorn, 1996. "How Complete is HMDA? HMDA Coverage of Freddie Mac Purchases," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 11(1), pages 39-56.
    6. Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2006. "Higher-priced home lending and the 2005 HMDA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Sep, pages 123-166.
    7. Pennington-Cross, Anthony, 2003. "Credit History and the Performance of Prime and Nonprime Mortgages," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 279-301, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jonathan Spader & Roberto Quercia, 2011. "Mortgage Brokers and the Refinancing Transaction: Evidence from CRA Borrowers," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 181-210, February.
    2. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen L. Ross, 2016. "The Vulnerability of Minority Homeowners in the Housing Boom and Bust," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-27, February.
    3. Díaz Serrano, Lluís & Raya, Josep Maria, 2011. "Is there Descriminatory Mortgage Pricing against Immigrants in the Spanish Lending Market?," Working Papers 2072/151811, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    4. Wheeler, Christopher H. & Olson, Luke M., 2015. "Racial differences in mortgage denials over the housing cycle: Evidence from U.S. metropolitan areas," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 33-49.
    5. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen L. Ross, 2014. "Race, Ethnicity and High Cost Mortgage Lending," Working papers 2014-36, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    6. Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Raya, Josep M., 2014. "Mortgages, immigrants and discrimination: An analysis of the interest rates in Spain," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 22-32.
    7. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen L. Ross, 2016. "What Drives Racial and Ethnic Differences in High Cost Mortgages? The Role of High Risk Lenders," Working Papers 2016-005, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    8. Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn Canner, 2012. "Does Credit Scoring Produce a Disparate Impact?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 40, pages 65-114, December.
    9. Luis Diaz-Serrano & Josep M. Raya, 2011. "Is there Discriminatory Mortgage Pricing against Immigrants in the Spanish Lending Market?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1869, European Regional Science Association.
    10. Su, Qing, 2015. "Determinants of mortgage pricing: A quantile regression analysisAuthor-Name: Al-Bahrani, Abdullah," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 77-85.
    11. Michael LaCour-Little, 2009. "The Pricing of Mortgages by Brokers: An Agency Problem?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 31(2), pages 235-264.
    12. Ping Cheng & Zhenguo Lin & Yingchun Liu, 2011. "Do Women Pay More for Mortgages?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 423-440, November.
    13. Chan, Sewin & Haughwout, Andrew & Tracy, Joseph, 2015. "How Mortgage Finance Affects the Urban Landscape," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Elsevier.
    14. Yan Zhang, 2013. "Fair Lending Analysis of Mortgage Pricing: Does Underwriting Matter?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 131-151, January.
    15. Courchane, Marsha J. & Darolia, Rajeev & Zorn, Peter M., 2014. "The downs and ups of FHA lending: The government mortgage roller coaster ride," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 39-56.
    16. repec:ire:issued:v:20:n:03:2017:p:325-348 is not listed on IDEAS

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    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services

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