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Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors

Author

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  • Ejermo, Olof

    () (CIRCLE, Lund University)

  • Jung, Taehyun

    () (CIRCLE, Lund University)

Abstract

This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed down since the early 2000’s compared to the mid-1990s. Moreover, comparing the inventor sample with the entire population of Sweden reveals that 1) the closing of the gender gap in inventing is not taking place at the same rate as among Ph.D. holders and that 2) the dependence of inventing on the highly educated (especially, Ph.D. holders) is being intensified over time, but the number of highly educated is growing faster among the general population than among inventors. Finally, the analysis shows that there is significant heterogeneity in the composition and tendency of gender, age, and education of inventors across technology fields.

Suggested Citation

  • Ejermo, Olof & Jung, Taehyun, 2012. "Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors," Papers in Innovation Studies 2012/5, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy, revised 03 Apr 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:lucirc:2012_005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Davide Castellani & Claudio Fassio, 2016. "Import, Export and Multinationality. Evidence from Swedish Firms," John H Dunning Centre for International Business Discussion Papers jhd-dp2016-08, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    2. repec:eee:respol:v:47:y:2018:i:4:p:814-825 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Yannu Zheng & Olof Ejermo, 2015. "How do the foreign-born perform in inventive activity? Evidence from Sweden," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 659-695, July.
    4. repec:kap:sbusec:v:51:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9928-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Pontus Braunerhjelm & Ding Ding & Per Thulin, 2018. "The knowledge spillover theory of intrapreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 1-30, June.
    6. repec:taf:ecinnt:v:26:y:2017:i:3:p:195-201 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Ejermo, Olof & Toivanen, Hannes, 2018. "University invention and the abolishment of the professor's privilege in Finland," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(4), pages 814-825.
    8. Essendorfer, Stephan & Diaz-Rainey, Ivan & Falta, Michael, 2015. "Creative destruction in Wall Street's technological arms race: Evidence from patent data," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 300-316.
    9. Harms, Rainer & Luck, Florian & Kraus, Sascha & Walsh, Steven, 2014. "On the motivational drivers of gray entrepreneurship: An exploratory study," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 358-365.
    10. Andersson, Martin & Xiao, Jing, 2014. "Acquisitions of Start-ups by Incumbent Businesses A market selection process of “high-quality” entrants?," Papers in Innovation Studies 2014/19, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    11. Ejermo, Olof & Hansen, Høgni Kalsø, 2014. "How Important are Local Inventive Milieus: The role of Birthplace, High School and University Education," Papers in Innovation Studies 2014/15, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    12. Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi & Seyed Kamran Bagheri, 2015. "Gender Gap in Patenting Activities: Evidence from Iran," LEM Papers Series 2015/22, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    13. Gema Lax Martínez & Julio Raffo & Kaori Saito, 2016. "Identifying the Gender of PCT inventors," WIPO Economic Research Working Papers 33, World Intellectual Property Organization - Economics and Statistics Division.
    14. repec:iag:reviea:v:13:y:2016:i:2:p:201-221 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Goeldner, Moritz & Herstatt, Cornelius & Tietze, Frank, 2015. "The emergence of care robotics — A patent and publication analysis," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 115-131.
    16. Jing Xiao, 2015. "The effects of acquisition on the growth of new technology-based firms: Do different types of acquirers matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 487-504, October.
    17. Thomas Zwick & Katharina Frosch, 2017. "Attenuation bias when measuring inventive performance," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(3), pages 195-201, April.
    18. repec:spr:scient:v:114:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s11192-017-2607-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Dorner, Matthias & Bender, Stefan & Harhoff, Dietmar & Hoisl, Karin & Scioch, Patrycja, 2014. "The MPI-IC-IAB-Inventor data 2002 (MIID 2002): Record-linkage of patent register data with labor market biography data of the IAB," FDZ Methodenreport 201406_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    20. Olof Ejermo & Jing Xiao, 2014. "Entrepreneurship and survival over the business cycle: how do new technology-based firms differ?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 411-426, August.
    21. Castellani, Davide & Fassio, Claudio, 2017. "Export innovation: The role of new imported inputs and multinationality," Papers in Innovation Studies 2017/16, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
    22. Andersson, Martin & Xiao, Jing, 2016. "Acquisitions of start-ups by incumbent businesses," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 272-290.

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    Keywords

    inventor; patent; gender; age; education;

    JEL classification:

    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

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