IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Energy Performance certificates and its capitalization in housing values in Sweden


  • Wilhelmsson, Mats

    (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)


The impact on energy performance certificates on housing prices has been investigated extensively in recent years. However, the results from these investigations are mixed. We add to the literature by more specifically controlling for potential biases by employing a combination of alternative approaches to estimate the causal relationship between house prices and energy performance certificates. We use a traditional hedonic modeling approach, but we are additionally using propensity score methods to be able to compare treated houses with a control group. We also investigate the impact of outliers, spatial dependency, and parameter heterogeneity of our estimates. Moreover, we use quantile regression technique to test the hypothesis that the capitalization effect varies across the price distribution. Our results indicate there is an upward bias if we are not controlling for outlier and selection bias. Regardless of the propensity score method approach, the results are lower than a model (around 3 percent capitalization compared to 6 percent). However, our results do not support that the impact of energy performance certificates varies in the price distribution. Consequently, the certificates are not differently capitalized in the high-end housing price segment. Finally, our results do not support the hypothesis that the energy performance certificate should be more capitalized into house prices in the northern and colder parts of Sweden than in the south of Sweden.

Suggested Citation

  • Wilhelmsson, Mats, 2019. "Energy Performance certificates and its capitalization in housing values in Sweden," Working Paper Series 19/3, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management & Banking and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:kthrec:2019_003

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fuerst, Franz & McAllister, Pat & Nanda, Anupam & Wyatt, Pete, 2016. "Energy performance ratings and house prices in Wales: An empirical study," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 20-33.
    2. Hyland, Marie & Lyons, Ronan C. & Lyons, Seán, 2013. "The value of domestic building energy efficiency — evidence from Ireland," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 943-952.
    3. Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder, 2003. "Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(4), pages 1161-1189, July.
    4. Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme & Michel Baroni & Fabrice Barthélémy & Francois des Rosiers, 2017. "Market heterogeneity and the determinants of Paris apartment prices: A quantile regression approach," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 54(14), pages 3260-3280, November.
    5. Lei Ding & Roberto G. Quercia & Wei Li & Janneke Ratcliffe, 2011. "Risky Borrowers or Risky Mortgages Disaggregating Effects Using Propensity Score Models," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 33(2), pages 245-278.
    6. Rosen, Sherwin, 1974. "Hedonic Prices and Implicit Markets: Product Differentiation in Pure Competition," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(1), pages 34-55, Jan.-Feb..
    7. de Ayala, Amaia & Galarraga, Ibon & Spadaro, Joseph V., 2016. "The price of energy efficiency in the Spanish housing market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 16-24.
    8. Vania Ceccato & Mats Wilhemson, 2011. "The impact of crime on apartment prices: evidence of Stockholm, Sweden," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1026, European Regional Science Association.
    9. Fuerst, Franz & Oikarinen, Elias & Harjunen, Oskari, 2016. "Green signalling effects in the market for energy-efficient residential buildings," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 180(C), pages 560-571.
    10. Steffen Andersen & Kasper Meisner Nielsen, 2017. "Fire Sales and House Prices: Evidence from Estate Sales Due to Sudden Death," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(1), pages 201-212, January.
    11. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
    12. Sofie R. Waltl, 2019. "Variation Across Price Segments and Locations: A Comprehensive Quantile Regression Analysis of the Sydney Housing Market," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 47(3), pages 723-756, September.
    13. James Yoo & Thomas Frederick, 2017. "The varying impact of land subsidence and earth fissures on residential property values in Maricopa County – a quantile regression approach," International Journal of Urban Sciences, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 204-216, May.
    14. McMillen, Daniel P., 2008. "Changes in the distribution of house prices over time: Structural characteristics, neighborhood, or coefficients?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 573-589, November.
    15. Joachim Zietz & Emily Zietz & G. Sirmans, 2008. "Determinants of House Prices: A Quantile Regression Approach," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 317-333, November.
    16. Guido W. Imbens, 2004. "Nonparametric Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Under Exogeneity: A Review," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 4-29, February.
    17. Andres Jauregui & Alan Tidwell & Diane Hite, 2017. "Sample Selection Approaches to Estimating House Price Cash Differentials," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 54(1), pages 117-137, January.
    18. Liao, Wen-Chi & Wang, Xizhu, 2012. "Hedonic house prices and spatial quantile regression," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 16-27.
    19. Austin Nichols, 2007. "Causal inference with observational data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 7(4), pages 507-541, December.
    20. Pontus Cerin & Lars G. Hassel & Natalia Semenova, 2014. "Energy Performance and Housing Prices," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(6), pages 404-419, November.
    21. Amecke, Hermann, 2012. "The impact of energy performance certificates: A survey of German home owners," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 4-14.
    22. Zhang, Lei, 2016. "Flood hazards impact on neighborhood house prices: A spatial quantile regression analysis," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 12-19.
    23. Zahirovich-Herbert, Velma & Gibler, Karen M., 2014. "The effect of new residential construction on housing prices," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 1-18.
    24. Hårsman, Björn & Daghbashyan, Zara & Chaudhary, Parth, 2016. "On the Quality and Impact of Residential Energy Performance Certificates," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 429, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    25. Scott Holupka & Sandra J. Newman, 2012. "The Effects of Homeownership on Children's Outcomes: Real Effects or Self-Selection?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 40(3), pages 566-602, September.
    26. Jensen, Ole Michael & Hansen, Anders Rhiger & Kragh, Jesper, 2016. "Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 229-235.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Matheus Koengkan & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2022. "Heterogeneous Effect of “Eco-Friendly” Dwellings on Transaction Prices in Real Estate Market in Portugal," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(18), pages 1-18, September.
    2. Matheus Koengkan & Nuno Silva & José Alberto Fuinhas, 2023. "Assessing Energy Performance Certificates for Buildings: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) of Portuguese Municipalities," Energies, MDPI, vol. 16(7), pages 1-30, April.
    3. Hans Westlund & Mats Wilhelmsson, 2021. "The Socio-Economic Cost of Wind Turbines: A Swedish Case Study," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(12), pages 1-16, June.
    4. Akhtyrska, Yana & Fuerst, Franz, 2024. "The effectiveness of climate change regulations in the commercial real estate market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 185(C).
    5. Jie Wang & Biyu Peng & Xiaohua Xia & Zhu Ma, 2021. "Are Housing Prices Sustainable in 35 Large and Medium-Sized Chinese Cities? A Study Based on the Cheap Talk Game and Dynamic GMM," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(22), pages 1-18, November.
    6. Ioannis Vardopoulos & Ioannis Vannas & George Xydis & Constantinos Vassiliades, 2023. "Homeowners’ Perceptions of Renewable Energy and Market Value of Sustainable Buildings," Energies, MDPI, vol. 16(10), pages 1-18, May.
    7. Song, Zisheng, 2021. "The capitalization of school quality in rents in the Beijing housing market: A propensity score method," Working Paper Series 21/7, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management & Banking and Finance.
    8. Dong Hyun Kim & Amina Irakoze, 2022. "Identifying Market Segment for the Assessment of a Price Premium for Green Certified Housing: A Cluster Analysis Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(1), pages 1-16, December.
    9. Yan Liu & Linchuan Yang & Kwong Wing Chau, 2020. "Impacts of Tourism Demand on Retail Property Prices in a Shopping Destination," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-14, February.
    10. Zuhaib, Sheikh & Schmatzberger, Senta & Volt, Jonathan & Toth, Zsolt & Kranzl, Lukas & Eugenio Noronha Maia, Iná & Verheyen, Jan & Borragán, Guillermo & Monteiro, Cláudia Sousa & Mateus, Nuno & Fragos, 2022. "Next-generation energy performance certificates: End-user needs and expectations," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
    11. Felipe Encinas & Carlos Marmolejo-Duarte & Carlos Aguirre-Nuñez & Francisco Vergara-Perucich, 2020. "When Residential Energy Labeling Becomes Irrelevant: Sustainability vs. Profitability in the Liberalized Chilean Property Market," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(22), pages 1-17, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Khazal, Aras & Sønstebø, Ole Jakob, 2020. "Valuation of energy performance certificates in the rental market – Professionals vs. nonprofessionals," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 147(C).
    2. Raul-Tomas Mora-Garcia & Maria-Francisca Cespedes-Lopez & V. Raul Perez-Sanchez & Pablo Marti & Juan-Carlos Perez-Sanchez, 2019. "Determinants of the Price of Housing in the Province of Alicante (Spain): Analysis Using Quantile Regression," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(2), pages 1-33, January.
    3. Taruttis, Lisa & Weber, Christoph, 2022. "Estimating the impact of energy efficiency on housing prices in Germany: Does regional disparity matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    4. Ismail, Muhammad & Warsame, Abukar & Wilhelmsson, Mats, 2020. "Measuring Gentrification with Getis-Ord Statistics and Its Effect on Housing Prices in Neighboring Areas: The Case of Stockholm," Working Paper Series 20/19, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management & Banking and Finance.
    5. Luiz de Mello, 2023. "Real Estate in a Post-Pandemic World: How Can Policies Make Housing More Enviromentally Sustainable and Affordable?," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 244(1), pages 111-139, March.
    6. Taruttis, Lisa & Weber, Christoph, 2020. "Estimating the impact of energy efficiency on housing prices in Germany: Does regional disparity matter?," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224582, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    7. Jose Torres-Pruñonosa & Pablo García-Estévez & Josep Maria Raya & Camilo Prado-Román, 2022. "How on Earth Did Spanish Banking Sell the Housing Stock?," SAGE Open, , vol. 12(1), pages 21582440221, March.
    8. Reusens, Peter & Vastmans, Frank & Damen, Sven, 2023. "A new framework to disentangle the impact of changes in dwelling characteristics on house price indices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    9. Federico Dell’Anna & Marina Bravi & Carlos Marmolejo-Duarte & Marta Carla Bottero & Ai Chen, 2019. "EPC Green Premium in Two Different European Climate Zones: A Comparative Study between Barcelona and Turin," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(20), pages 1-21, October.
    10. Lisa Taruttis & Christoph Weber, 2020. "Estimating the impact of energy efficiency on housing prices in Germany: Does regional disparity matter?," EWL Working Papers 2004, University of Duisburg-Essen, Chair for Management Science and Energy Economics.
    11. Evangelista, Rui & Ramalho, Esmeralda A. & Andrade e Silva, João, 2020. "On the use of hedonic regression models to measure the effect of energy efficiency on residential property transaction prices: Evidence for Portugal and selected data issues," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    12. Franke, Melanie & Nadler, Claudia, 2019. "Energy efficiency in the German residential housing market: Its influence on tenants and owners," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 128(C), pages 879-890.
    13. Zhang, Lei & Yi, Yimin, 2017. "Quantile house price indices in Beijing," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 85-96.
    14. Pasichnyi, Oleksii & Wallin, Jörgen & Levihn, Fabian & Shahrokni, Hossein & Kordas, Olga, 2019. "Energy performance certificates — New opportunities for data-enabled urban energy policy instruments?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 486-499.
    15. Maria-Francisca Cespedes-Lopez & Raul-Tomas Mora-Garcia & V. Raul Perez-Sanchez & Juan-Carlos Perez-Sanchez, 2019. "Meta-Analysis of Price Premiums in Housing with Energy Performance Certificates (EPC)," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(22), pages 1-59, November.
    16. Wahlström, Marie H., 2016. "Doing good but not that well? A dilemma for energy conserving homeowners," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 197-205.
    17. Rui Evangelista & Esmeralda A. Ramalho & João Andrade e Silva, 2019. "On the use of Hedonic Regression Models to Measure the Effect of Energy Efficiency on Residential Property Transaction Prices: Evidence for Portugal and Selected Data Issues," Working Papers REM 2019/64, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa.
    18. McMillen, Daniel & Shimizu, Chihiro, 2017. "Decompositions of Spatially Varying Quantile Distribution Estimates: The Rise and Fall of Tokyo House Prices," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 74, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    19. Hyunjoo Lee & Misuk Lee & Sesil Lim, 2018. "Do Consumers Care about the Energy Efficiency of Buildings? Understanding Residential Choice Based on Energy Performance Certificates," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(11), pages 1-18, November.
    20. Villar, Jaume García & Raya, Josep Maria, 2015. "Use of a Gini index to examine housing price heterogeneity: A quantile approach," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 59-71.

    More about this item


    energy performance certificates; climate; hedonic price equation; selection bias; propensity score method;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General
    • R30 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - General
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:kthrec:2019_003. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Cecilia Hermansson (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.