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Trade and Location with Horizontal and Vertical Multi-Region Firms

Author

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  • Ekholm, Karolina

    () (The Research Institute of Industrial Economics)

  • Forslid, Rikard

    () (Lund University and CEPR)

Abstract

This paper analyses the effect on agglomeration tendencies of allowing firms to become multi-region firms in a standard model of trade and location. More specifically, we introduce horizontal and vertical multi-region firms into the core-periphery (CP) model developed by Krugman (1991). The introduction of horizontal multi-region firms dampens the strong agglomeration effects found in the CP model by making the range of trade costs for which the core-periphery equilibrium occurs smaller. The introduction of vertical multi-region firms that can separate the location of headquarter activities from the location of production has two counteracting effects. First, headquarters have a strong tendency to agglomerate, and, in this sence, agglomeration tendencies are strengthened. Second, actual production tends to be more spread out, and, in this sense, they are weakened.

Suggested Citation

  • Ekholm, Karolina & Forslid, Rikard, 1998. "Trade and Location with Horizontal and Vertical Multi-Region Firms," Working Paper Series 504, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0504
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-234, December.
    2. Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 857-880.
    3. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476, March.
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    5. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Karolina Ekholm & Katariina Hakkala, 2007. "Location of R&D and High-Tech Production by Vertically Integrated Multinationals," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(518), pages 512-543, March.
    2. Laura Resmini, 2014. "Patterns of FDI in Southern European Periphery: a Tale of Missing FDI?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p543, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Harry Garretsen & Jolanda Peeters, 2009. "FDI and the relevance of spatial linkages: do third-country effects matter for Dutch FDI?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 145(2), pages 319-338, July.
    4. Strauss-Kahn, Vanessa & Vives, Xavier, 2009. "Why and where do headquarters move?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 168-186, March.
    5. Kaitila, Ville, 2013. "Specialisation and/or Convergence: Structure of European Exports and Production," ETLA Working Papers 12, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    6. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Robert Jäckle & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2005. "Location Choice and Employment Decisions: A Comparison of German and Swedish Multinationals," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(4), pages 693-731, December.
    7. Toshihiro Okubo & Eiichi Tomiura, 2016. "Multi-plant operation and corporate headquarters separation: Evidence from Japanese plant-level," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2016-016, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    8. Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd & Smeets, Roger & Zwinkels, Remco, 2008. "The impact of horizontal and vertical FDI on host's country economic growth," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 452-472, August.
    9. OKUBO Toshihiro & TOMIURA Eiichi, 2016. "Multi-plant Operation and Corporate Headquarters Separation: Evidence from Japanese plant-level panel data," Discussion papers 16002, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    10. Okubo, Toshihiro & Tomiura, Eiichi, 2016. "Multi-plant operation and headquarters separation: Evidence from Japanese plant-level panel data," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 12-22.
    11. Chou, Kuang-Hann & Chen, Chien-Hsun & Mai, Chao-Cheng, 2011. "The impact of third-country effects and economic integration on China's outward FDI," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 2154-2163, September.
    12. Peter Egger & Stefan Gruber & Mario Larch & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2007. "Knowledge–capital meets new economic geography," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(4), pages 857-875, December.
    13. Kenmei Tsubota, "undated". "Location and organization choice of firms," KIER Working Papers 679, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    14. Kristian Behrens & Pierre M. Picard, 2007. "Welfare, home market effects, and horizontal foreign direct investment," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1118-1148, November.
    15. Laura Casi & Laura Resmini, 2014. "Spatial complexity and interactions in the FDI attractiveness of regions," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 93, pages 51-78, November.
    16. Laura Resmini & Laura Casi, 2013. "Spatial complexity and interactions in regions' FDI attractiveness," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1063, European Regional Science Association.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade; Location; Agglomeration; Multinational firms;

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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