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Relations UE-Russie : les enjeux d'une nouvelle architecture gazière

  • Catherine Locatelli

    ()

    (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Économie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - CNRS : FRE3389 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)

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    La sécurité gazière de l'UE est un facteur clé de sa politique énergétique. Les relations contractuelles basées sur des contrats de long terme dans les années 1970 et 1980 ont conduit à une relative stabilité des échanges d'énergie entre l'Union et ses fournisseurs de gaz. Mais depuis le milieu des années 1990, l'ouverture du marché gazier de l'UE à la concurrence et le désir de créer un marché unique du gaz conduit à une profonde réorganisation du secteur. Dans ce contexte, l'UE entend redéfinir la façon dont elle gère ses relations avec ses principaux fournisseurs, comme la Russie, en tentant d'imposer un modèle basé sur la concurrence, le dégroupage des industries de réseau et la privatisation. Ce " modèle européen " n'est pas celui que la Russie a l'intention de mettre en œuvre dans son secteur gazier, malgré les grands changements en cours sur son marché domestique. Une approche basée sur l'utilisation préférentielle des instruments étatiques s'oppose au multilatéralisme et aux principes de la concurrence de l'UE. Le pouvoir normatif de l'UE est donc en contradiction avec l'environnement institutionnel du secteur de l'énergie russe. Dans ce contexte, il est peu probable que les standards issus des règles et des institutions de l'UE puissent servir de cadre unique aux relations énergétiques entre l'UE et la Russie.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00755640
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