IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ger/dtrabj/006.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Pricing Coordination in a Spatial Context: Evidence from the Retail Vehicular Natural Gas Market of Peru

Author

Listed:
  • Vásquez Cordano, Arturo Leonardo
  • Rojas, Pedro
  • Aurazo, José

Abstract

This paper aims to assess the degree of market power in the Peruvian retail market for Vehicular Natural Gas (VNG) using a generalized spatial competition model proposed by Capozza and Van Order (1978). This model nests Loschian, Hotelling-Smithies, and Greenhut-Ohta models through a single coefficient, so-called the spatial conjectural variation parameter. This paper exploits the fact that the marginal cost of natural gas is known and constant for all VNG stations due to the regulatory treatment in Peru, which ensures the proper identification of the conjectural variation parameter and gives information about the behavior of pricing coordination among firms. Our database contains information on retail VNG prices, sold VNG quantities, and other characteristics of 34 counties in Metropolitan Lima and Callao in Peru from 2011 to 2015. The results suggest the existence of some degree of coordination in prices associated with spatial collusion. This result is consistent with the Peruvian Antitrust Authority verdict that determined the existence of a case of price collusion in this retail market in 2019.

Suggested Citation

  • Vásquez Cordano, Arturo Leonardo & Rojas, Pedro & Aurazo, José, 2021. "Pricing Coordination in a Spatial Context: Evidence from the Retail Vehicular Natural Gas Market of Peru," Documentos de Trabajo 006, Escuela de Postgrado GERENS.
  • Handle: RePEc:ger:dtrabj:006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://repositorio.gerens.edu.pe/handle/20.500.12877/62
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Collantes, Gustavo & Melaina, Marc W., 2011. "The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 664-675, February.
    3. Pennerstorfer, Dieter & Weiss, Christoph, 2013. "Spatial clustering and market power: Evidence from the retail gasoline market," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 661-675.
    4. Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-342, March.
    5. Bergantino, Angela S. & Capozza, Claudia & Intini, Mario, 2020. "Empirical investigation of retail fuel pricing: The impact of spatial interaction, competition and territorial factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    6. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1982. "The oligopoly solution concept is identified," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 87-92.
    7. Driscoll, John & Kraay, Aart, 1995. "Spatial correlations in panel data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1553, The World Bank.
    8. Reimer Jeffrey J, 2004. "Market Conduct in the U.S. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-29, November.
    9. Jean-Francois Houde, 2012. "Spatial Differentiation and Vertical Mergers in Retail Markets for Gasoline," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(5), pages 2147-2182, August.
    10. Engerer, Hella & Horn, Manfred, 2010. "Natural gas vehicles: An option for Europe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1017-1029, February.
    11. Dieter Pennerstorfer, 2009. "Spatial price competition in retail gasoline markets: evidence from Austria," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 43(1), pages 133-158, March.
    12. Yeh, Sonia, 2007. "An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 5865-5875, November.
    13. Ogunlowo, Olufemi O. & Bristow, Abigail L. & Sohail, M., 2015. "Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 7-17.
    14. Marco Alderighi & Marco Baudino, 2015. "The pricing behavior of Italian gas stations: Some evidence from the Cuneo retail fuel market," Post-Print halshs-01957369, HAL.
    15. Pinkse, Joris & Slade, Margaret E., 2004. "Mergers, brand competition, and the price of a pint," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 617-643, June.
    16. Alderighi, Marco & Baudino, Marco, 2015. "The pricing behavior of Italian gas stations: Some evidence from the Cuneo retail fuel market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 33-46.
    17. Ma, Linwei & Geng, Jia & Li, Weqi & Liu, Pei & Li, Zheng, 2013. "The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 531-539.
    18. Capozza, Dennis R & Van Order, Robert, 1978. "A Generalized Model of Spatial Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(5), pages 896-908, December.
    19. Margaret E. Slade, 2004. "Market Power and Joint Dominance in U.K. Brewing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 133-163, March.
    20. Firgo, Matthias & Pennerstorfer, Dieter & Weiss, Christoph R., 2015. "Centrality and pricing in spatially differentiated markets: The case of gasoline," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 81-90.
    21. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1989. "Empirical studies of industries with market power," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 17, pages 1011-1057, Elsevier.
    22. Claycombe, Richard J., 1991. "Spatial retail markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 303-313, June.
    23. Conley, T. G., 1999. "GMM estimation with cross sectional dependence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 1-45, September.
    24. Bresnahan, Timothy F, 1987. "Competition and Collusion in the American Automobile Industry: The 1955 Price War," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 457-482, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Nguyen-Ones, Mai & Steen, Frode, 2018. "Measuring Market Power in Gasoline Retailing: A Market- or Station Phenomenon?," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 6/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
    2. Victor Aguirregabiria & Margaret Slade, 2017. "Empirical models of firms and industries," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 50(5), pages 1445-1488, December.
    3. Nguyen-Ones , Mai & Steen, Frode, 2018. "Market Power in Retail Gasoline Markets," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 21/2019, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics, revised 01 Jul 2019.
    4. Céline Bonnet & Pierre Dubois, 2010. "Inference on vertical contracts between manufacturers and retailers allowing for nonlinear pricing and resale price maintenance," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(1), pages 139-164, March.
    5. Hajime Seya & Kay W. Axhausen & Makoto Chikaraishi, 2020. "Spatial unconditional quantile regression: application to Japanese parking price data," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 65(2), pages 351-402, October.
    6. Bergantino, Angela Stefania & Capozza, Claudia & Intini, Mario, 2018. "Empirical investigation of retail gasoline prices," Working Papers 18_5, SIET Società Italiana di Economia dei Trasporti e della Logistica.
    7. Leonardo C. B. Cardoso & Carlos Frederico A. Uchôa & Williams Huamani & David R. Just & Raúl V. Gomez, 2022. "Price effects of spatial competition in retail fuel markets: the impact of a new rival nearby," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 101(1), pages 81-105, February.
    8. Bergantino, Angela S. & Capozza, Claudia & Intini, Mario, 2020. "Empirical investigation of retail fuel pricing: The impact of spatial interaction, competition and territorial factors," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    9. Firgo, Matthias & Kügler, Agnes, 2018. "Cooperative pricing in spatially differentiated markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 51-67.
    10. Wang, Hongxia & Fang, Hong & Yu, Xueying & Wang, Ke, 2015. "Development of natural gas vehicles in China: An assessment of enabling factors and barriers," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 80-93.
    11. Richards, Timothy J. & Acharya, Ram N. & Kagan, Albert, 2008. "Spatial competition and market power in banking," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(5), pages 436-454.
    12. Brito, Duarte & Ribeiro, Ricardo & Vasconcelos, Helder, 2018. "Quantifying the coordinated effects of partial horizontal acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 108-149.
    13. Adriana Nikolic & Christoph Weiss, 2014. "Spatial interactions in location decisions: Empirical evidence from a Bayesian spatial probit model," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp177, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
    14. Firgo, Matthias & Pennerstorfer, Dieter & Weiss, Christoph R., 2015. "Centrality and pricing in spatially differentiated markets: The case of gasoline," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 81-90.
    15. Alberto Salvo, 2004. "Inferring Conduct under the Threat of Entry: The Case of the Brazilian Cement Industry," STICERD - Economics of Industry Papers 38, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    16. Porter, Robert H., 2020. "Mergers and coordinated effects," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    17. Matthias Firgo & Agnes Kügler, 2014. "Detecting Collusion in Spatially Differentiated Markets," Department of Economics Working Papers wuwp188, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Department of Economics.
    18. Alderighi, Marco & Nicolini, Marcella, 2022. "Strategic information disclosure in vertical markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    19. David P. Byrne, 2015. "Testing Models Of Differentiated Products Markets: Consolidation In The Cable Tv Industry," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 56(3), pages 805-850, August.
    20. Jean-Paul Chavas & Guanming Shi & Kyle Stiegert, 2020. "Pricing and Industry Structure when Demand Elasticity Changes," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 57(4), pages 891-907, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Vehicular Natural Gas; Market Power Measurement; Spatial Competition; Peru; Oligopoly; Generalized Method of Moments; Collusive Behavior; Energy Cartel.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L95 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices
    • C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
    • C36 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ger:dtrabj:006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Claudia Castillo (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/gerenpe.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.