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Barriers to network-specific innovation

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  • Antoine Martin
  • Michael J. Orlando

Abstract

We examine incentives for network-specific investment and the implications for network governance. We model an environment in which participants that make payments over a network can invest in a technology that reduces the marginal cost of using the network. A network effect results in multiple equilibria; either all agents invest and network usage is high or no agents invest and network usage is low. When commitment is feasible, the high-use equilibrium can be implemented; however, when commitment is infeasible, fixed costs associated with use of the network-specific technology result in a holdup problem that implements the low-investment equilibrium. Thus, governance structures necessary to achieve commitment will be preferred to those necessary merely to achieve coordination. For example, mutual ownership by network users may emerge where users face risk of ex post renegotiation. Such a governance structure will also be sufficient to avoid the network effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Antoine Martin & Michael J. Orlando, 2005. "Barriers to network-specific innovation," Staff Reports 221, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:221
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2014. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," CPI Journal, Competition Policy International, vol. 10.
    2. Julian Wright, 2004. "The Determinants of Optimal Interchange Fees in Payment Systems," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 1-26, March.
    3. Klepper, Steven, 1996. "Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 562-583, June.
    4. Bengt Holmstrom, 1982. "Moral Hazard in Teams," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 13(2), pages 324-340, Autumn.
    5. Grout, Paul A, 1984. "Investment and Wages in the Absence of Binding Contracts: A Nash Bargining Approach," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 449-460, March.
    6. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 424-440, June.
    7. Klein, Benjamin, 1988. "Vertical Integration as Organizational Ownership: The Fisher Body-General Motors Relationship Revisited," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 199-213, Spring.
    8. Schiff, Aaron, 2003. "Open and closed systems of two-sided networks," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 425-442, December.
    9. Cardillo, Matthew & Martin, Antoine & Orland0, Michael, 2004. "Innovation on networks: Coordination, governance, and the case of VISA," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 12, pages 104-106.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tomasz Bernat, 2008. "Market Creation, Development and Barriers: The Case of Polish Mobile Telephony Market," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 11(29), pages 153-169, (3).

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    Keywords

    Investments ; Equilibrium (Economics) ; Payment systems;

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