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Has growth been good for women’s employment in Pakistan?


  • Majid, H.
  • Siegmann, K.A.


In this paper, we analyse the gender inclusiveness of Pakistan’s economic growth performance as measured by the rate at which employment changes when GDP increases by one percentage point. Our results show not only differences in such employment elasticities across sectors but also across genders. Rooted in women’s status as secondary workers within Pakistan’s labour force, their employment is commonly more responsive to the business cycle. Surprising results include that gender wage equality is positively associated with employment elasticities. Furthermore, we question the optimistic narrative that education improves women’s ability to take up employment in periods of positive GDP growth.

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  • Majid, H. & Siegmann, K.A., 2017. "Has growth been good for women’s employment in Pakistan?," ISS Working Papers - General Series 630, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  • Handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:99236

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    9. Standing, Guy, 1989. "Global feminization through flexible labor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 1077-1095, July.
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    11. Najam Us Saqib & G. M. Arif, 2012. "Time Poverty, Work Status and Gender: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 23-46.
    12. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
    13. Falguni Pattanaik & Narayan Chandra Nayak, 2014. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Employment Intensity of Growth in India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 8(2), pages 137-154, May.
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    economic growth; employment; gender; growth elasticity of employment; inclusive growth; Pakistan;

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