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Has growth been good for women’s employment in Pakistan?

Listed author(s):
  • Majid, H.
  • Siegmann, K.A.
Registered author(s):

    In this paper, we analyse the gender inclusiveness of Pakistan’s economic growth performance as measured by the rate at which employment changes when GDP increases by one percentage point. Our results show not only differences in such employment elasticities across sectors but also across genders. Rooted in women’s status as secondary workers within Pakistan’s labour force, their employment is commonly more responsive to the business cycle. Surprising results include that gender wage equality is positively associated with employment elasticities. Furthermore, we question the optimistic narrative that education improves women’s ability to take up employment in periods of positive GDP growth.

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    Paper provided by International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague in its series ISS Working Papers - General Series with number 630.

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    Length: 33
    Date of creation: 25 Apr 2017
    Handle: RePEc:ems:euriss:99236
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    1. Karin Astrid Siegmann, 2011. "The Crisis in South Asia: From Jobless Growth to Jobless Slump?," Chapters,in: The Financial Crisis and Developing Countries, chapter 13 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Stephanie Seguino, 2007. "PlusCa Change? evidence on global trends in gender norms and stereotypes," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 1-28.
    3. Standing, Guy, 1989. "Global feminization through flexible labor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(7), pages 1077-1095, July.
    4. Najam Us Saqib & G. M. Arif, 2012. "Time Poverty, Work Status and Gender: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 23-46.
    5. Stephanie Seguino & Caren Grown, 2006. "Gender equity and globalization: macroeconomic policy for developing countries," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(8), pages 1081-1104.
    6. Falguni Pattanaik & Narayan Chandra Nayak, 2014. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Employment Intensity of Growth in India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 8(2), pages 137-154, May.
    7. A. P. Thirlwall, 1983. "A Plain Man's Guide to Kaldor's Growth Laws," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 5(3), pages 345-358, April.
    8. Karin Astrid SIEGMANN, 2005. "The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Potential effects on gendered employment in Pakistan," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 144(4), pages 401-421, December.
    9. Shen, Ce & Williamson, John B., 1999. "Maternal mortality, women's status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 197-214, July.
    10. Sheba Tejani, 2016. "Jobless growth in India: an investigation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(3), pages 843-870.
    11. Stephanie Seguino & Maureen Were, 2014. "Gender, Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 23(suppl_1), pages 18-61.
    12. UN Women, 2015. "Progress of the World’s Women 2015-2016: Transforming Economies, Realizing Rights," Working Papers id:7688, eSocialSciences.
    13. Cristiano Perugini & Marcello Signorelli, 2007. "Labour Market Performance Differentials and Dynamics in EU-15 Countries and Regions," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 4(2), pages 209-262, September.
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