IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Complementarity between Formal and Informal Manufacturing in India: The Role of Policies and Institutions


  • Asha Sundaram
  • Reshad Ahsan
  • Devashish Mitra


In this paper, we have investigated the relationship between the formal and informal manufacturing sectors in India. We find that the employment, output and the value added of the informal part of each of the manufacturing industries in the various Indian states are strongly positively correlated with the same variables for the formal part of the respective industry in these states. Our results provide support for complementarities between formal and informal manufacturing arising possibly from both agglomeration and outsourcing. We also find fairly strong support for the role of labor market flexibility in enabling this complementarity. Trade liberalization also turns out to have an important role.

Suggested Citation

  • Asha Sundaram & Reshad Ahsan & Devashish Mitra, 2012. "Complementarity between Formal and Informal Manufacturing in India: The Role of Policies and Institutions," Working Papers 1116, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, revised Apr 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecq:wpaper:1116

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: First version, 2012
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Panagariya, Arvind, 2011. "India: The Emerging Giant," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199751563.
    2. Gupta,Poonam & Hasan, Rana & Kumar, Utsav, 2009. "Big Reforms but Small Payoffs: Explaining the Weak Record of Growth in Indian Manufacturing," India Policy Forum, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 5(1), pages 59-123.
    3. Eric V. Edmonds & Nina Pavcnik & Petia Topalova, 2010. "Trade Adjustment and Human Capital Investments: Evidence from Indian Tariff Reform," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(4), pages 42-75, October.
    4. Asha Sundaram, 2015. "The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Micro Enterprises: Do Banks Matter? Evidence from Indian Manufacturing," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 77(6), pages 832-853, December.
    5. Devashish Mitra & Beyza Ural, 2009. "Indian manufacturing: A slow sector in a rapidly growing economy," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 205-205.
    6. Edward C. Norton & Hua Wang & Chunrong Ai, 2004. "Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 4(2), pages 154-167, June.
    7. Rana Hasan & Devashish Mitra & K.V. Ramaswamy, 2007. "Trade Reforms, Labor Regulations, and Labor-Demand Elasticities: Empirical Evidence from India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(3), pages 466-481, August.
    8. Petia Topalova, 2007. "Trade Liberalization, Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Indian Districts," NBER Chapters,in: Globalization and Poverty, pages 291-336 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Hasan, Rana & Mitra, Devashish & Ural, Beyza P., 2007. "Trade Liberalization, Labor-Market Institutions, and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Indian States," India Policy Forum, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 3(1), pages 71-122.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Rajeev Dehejia & Arvind Panagariya, 2016. "The Link between Manufacturing Growth and Accelerated Services Growth in India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 221-264.
    2. Amit Basole & Deepankar Basu & Rajesh Bhattacharya, 2014. "Determinants and Impact of Subcontracting: Evidence from India’s Informal Manufacturing Sector," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2014-04, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
    3. Nihar Shembavnekar, 2015. "Tariff Liberalisation, Labour Market Flexibility and Employment: Evidence from India," Working Paper Series 8115, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    4. Matthew Embrey & Guillaume R. Frechette & Sevgi Yuksel, 2016. "Cooperation in the Finitely Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma," Working Paper Series 8616, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    5. Amit Basole & Deepankar Basu & Rajesh Bhattacharya, 2014. "Determinants and Impact of Subcontracting: Evidence from India’s Informal Manufacturing Sector," Working Papers 2014_08, University of Massachusetts Boston, Economics Department.
    6. Mukherjee, Soumyatanu, 2016. "Technology, trade and ‘urban poor’ in a general equilibrium model with segmented domestic factor markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 400-416.

    More about this item


    India; Formal Manufacturing; Informal Manufacturing; Policies; Institutions; employment; output; agglomeration; outsourcing; value added;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecq:wpaper:1116. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ursula Schwarzhaupt). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.