How important are household demographic characteristics to explain private car use patterns? A multilevel approach to Austrian data
Private car use is one of the major contributors to pollution in industrialised countries. It is therefore important to understand the factors that determine the demand for car use. In explaining the variability in car use, it is important to take into account household demographic characteristics and local and regional differences in infrastructure, in addition to the economic variables commonly used in the prevailing literature on the topic. The appropriate tool to explain car ownership and car use is, therefore, a multilevel statistical approach. An Austrian household survey from 1997 finds that household characteristics such as age, gender, education and employment of the household head, household size and housing quality can effect the variability of car ownership and car use. The same survey also gives a clear indication of regional heterogeneity. This heterogeneity persists when we controlled for the variability of regional economic welfare and infrastructure as indicated by population density.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Greening, Lorna A & Jeng, Hann Tarn, 1994. "Lifecycle analysis of gasoline expenditure patterns," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 217-228, July.
- Alexia Prskawetz & Jiang Leiwen & Brian C. O Neill, 2004.
"Demographic composition and projections of car use in Austria,"
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research,
Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, vol. 2(1), pages 175-202.
- Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz & Jiang Leiwen & Brian C. O´Neill, 2002. "Demographic composition and projections of car use in Austria," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2002-034, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Dahl, Carol & Sterner, Thomas, 1991. "Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: a survey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 203-210, July.
- Ludwig Fahrmeir & Stefan Lang, 2001. "Bayesian inference for generalized additive mixed models based on Markov random field priors," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 50(2), pages 201-220.
- Ulf-Christian Ewert & Alexia Prskawetz, 2000. "Private car use in Austria by demographic structure and regional variations," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2000-006, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika & Linden, Anna-Lisa, 1999. "Travel patterns and environmental effects now and in the future:: implications of differences in energy consumption among socio-economic groups," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 405-417, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)