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Ownership and Control in Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence

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  • Hauswald, Robert
  • Hege, Ulrich

Abstract

Joint ventures, a particularly popular form of corporate cooperation, exhibit ownership patterns that are concentrated at 50-50 or ‘50 plus one share’ equity allocations for a wide variety of parent firms. In this Paper, we argue that private control benefits create a discontinuity in contribution incentives around equal shareholdings that explains these two cluster points. Using data from US joint ventures, we empirically analyse the determinants of their ownership allocations and find that, consistent with our predictions, parents with similar contribution costs or a high potential for private benefits extraction prefer equal shareholdings and joint control. Similarly, parent-level spillovers make 50-50 ownership more attractive to the detriment of one-sided control while complementarities in parent contributions have the opposite effect. We also find evidence that contingent ownership arrangements such as explicit options and buyout or termination mechanisms serve to mitigate regime-specific contractual inefficiencies.

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  • Hauswald, Robert & Hege, Ulrich, 2003. "Ownership and Control in Joint Ventures: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 4056, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:4056
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    3. Ornelas, Emanuel & Turner, John L., 2007. "Efficient dissolution of partnerships and the structure of control," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 187-199, July.
    4. Gattai, Valeria & Natale, Piergiovanna, 2013. "What makes a joint venture: Micro-evidence from Sino-Italian contracts," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 194-205.
    5. Häussler, Carolin, 2004. "Does Partnering Pay Off? - Stock Market Reactions to Inter-Firm Collaboration Announcements in Germany," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 14, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    6. Gilles Chemla & Michel A. Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2007. "An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(1), pages 93-121, March.
    7. Mantecon, Tomas & Chatfield, Robert E., 2007. "An analysis of the disposition of assets in a joint venture," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2591-2611, September.
    8. María‐Angeles de Frutos & Thomas Kittsteiner, 2008. "Efficient partnership dissolution under buy‐sell clauses," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(1), pages 184-198, March.
    9. Berardi, Nicoletta & Seabright, Paul, 2010. "Joint Ventures as a Commitment Device Against Lobbies," CEPR Discussion Papers 7714, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. James Andreoni & B. Douglas Bernheim, 2009. "Social Image and the 50-50 Norm: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Audience Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(5), pages 1607-1636, September.
    11. Ludwig Ensthaler & Thomas Giebe & Jianpei Li, 2014. "Speculative partnership dissolution with auctions," Review of Economic Design, Springer;Society for Economic Design, vol. 18(2), pages 127-150, June.
    12. James Andreoni, 2007. "Social Image and the 50-50 Norm: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Audience Effects," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000001459, UCLA Department of Economics.
    13. Che, Jiahua & Facchi, Giovanni, 2007. "Cultural Differences, Insecure Property Rights and the Mode of Entry Decision," Economics Discussion Papers 8916, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
    14. Jiahua Che & Giovanni Facchini, 2009. "Cultural differences, insecure property rights and the mode of entry decision," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 38(3), pages 465-484, March.
    15. Berglof, Erik & Claessens, Stijn, 2004. "Enforcement and Corporate Governance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3409, The World Bank.
    16. Pilar Socorro, M., 2007. "Optimal technology policy under asymmetric information in a research joint venture," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 76-97, January.
    17. Habib, Michel A. & Mella-Barral, Pierre, 2013. "Skills, core capabilities, and the choice between merging, allying, and trading assets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 31-48.
    18. Case, Spencer A. & Lee, D. Scott & Martin, John D., 2007. "The potential for expropriation through joint ventures," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 111-126.
    19. Ushijima, Tatsuo, 2010. "Understanding partial mergers in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2941-2953, December.
    20. Valeria Gattai & Piergiovanna Natale, 2014. "Joint Ventures and the Property Rights Theory of the Firm: a Review of the Literature," Working Papers 287, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Dec 2014.
    21. Dominique Demougin & Oliver Fabel, 2006. "The Division of Ownership in New Ventures," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2006-047, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    22. Moskalev, Sviatoslav A. & Swensen, R. Bruce, 2007. "Joint ventures around the globe from 1990-2000: Forms, types, industries, countries and ownership patterns," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 29-67.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation

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