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An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements


  • Chemla, Gilles
  • Habib, Michel Antoine
  • Ljungqvist, Alexander P.


Shareholder agreements govern the relations among shareholders in privately-held companies, such as joint ventures or venture capital-backed …rms. We provide an explanation for the use of put and call options, pre-emption rights, drag-along rights, demand rights, tag-along rights, and catch-up clauses in shareholder agreements. We view these clauses as serving to preserve the parties’ incentives to make ex ante investments when ex post renegotiation may alter the parties’ shares of the payoff. We extend our framework to discuss the use of other clauses, such as the option to extend the life of a business alliance.

Suggested Citation

  • Chemla, Gilles & Habib, Michel Antoine & Ljungqvist, Alexander P., 2002. "An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements," CEPR Discussion Papers 3457, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3457

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. HEGE, Ulrich & HAUSWALD, Robert, 2002. "Ownership and control in joint ventures: theory and evidence," Les Cahiers de Recherche 750, HEC Paris.
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    11. Lerner, Josh & Shane, Hilary & Tsai, Alexander, 2003. "Do equity financing cycles matter? evidence from biotechnology alliances," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 411-446, March.
    12. Admati, Anat R & Pfleiderer, Paul, 1994. " Robust Financial Contracting and the Role of Venture Capitalists," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 371-402, June.
    13. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Strömberg, 2003. "Financial Contracting Theory Meets the Real World: An Empirical Analysis of Venture Capital Contracts," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(2), pages 281-315.
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    Cited by:

    1. Uwe Walz & Carsten Bienz, 2006. "Evolution of Decision and Control Rights in Venture Capital Contracts: An Empirical Analysis," FMG Discussion Papers dp585, Financial Markets Group.
    2. Peter Roosenboom, 2005. "Bargaining on Board Structure at the Initial Public Offering," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 9(2), pages 171-198, June.
    3. Chemla, Gilles & de Bettignies, Jean-Etienne, 2003. "Corporate Venture Capital: The Upside of Failure and Competition for Talent," CEPR Discussion Papers 4139, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Patrick Herbst & Uwe Walz, 2017. "The Design of Vertical R&D Collaborations," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 84(333), pages 54-77, January.
    5. Kaplan, Steven & Martel, Frederic & Strömberg, Per Johan, 2003. "How Do Legal Differences and Learning Affect Financial Contracts?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4161, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3031 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:dau:papers:123456789/2940 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kammerlander, Nadine & Sieger, Philipp & Voordeckers, Wim & Zellweger, Thomas, 2015. "Value creation in family firms: A model of fit," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 63-72.
    9. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5922 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Jean-Etienne de Bettignies & Gilles Chemla, 2008. "Corporate Venturing, Allocation of Talent, and Competition for Star Managers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(3), pages 505-521, March.
    11. Mariarosa Scarlata & Luisa Alemany, 2010. "Deal Structuring in Philanthropic Venture Capital Investments: Financing Instrument, Valuation and Covenants," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 95(2), pages 121-145, September.
    12. Bennedsen, Morten & Nielsen, Kasper Meisner & Nielsen, Thomas Vester, 2012. "Private contracting and corporate governance: Evidence from the provision of tag-along rights in Brazil," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 904-918.
    13. Daniel Ferreira & Emanuel Ornelas & John L. Turner, 2015. "Unbundling Ownership and Control," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 1-21, March.
    14. María-Angeles de Frutos & Thomas Kittsteiner, 2008. "Efficient partnership dissolution under buy-sell clauses," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(1), pages 184-198.
    15. Carvalhal, Andre, 2012. "Do shareholder agreements affect market valuation?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 919-933.
    16. repec:dau:papers:123456789/2941 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Roosenboom, Peter & Schramade, Willem, 2006. "The price of power: Valuing the controlling position of owner-managers in French IPO firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 270-295, January.

    More about this item


    call options; catch-up clauses; demand rights; drag-along rights; pre-emption rights; put options; shareholder agreements; tag-along rights;

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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