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An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements

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  • Gilles Chemla
  • Michel A. Habib
  • Alexander Ljungqvist

Abstract

Shareholder agreements govern the relations among shareholders in privately held firms, such as joint ventures and venture capital-backed companies. We provide an economic explanation for key clauses in such agreements-namely, put and call options, tag-along and drag-along rights, demand and piggy-back rights, and catch-up clauses. In a dynamic moral hazard setting, we show that these clauses can ensure that the contract parties make efficient ex ante investments in the firm. They do so by constraining renegotiation. In the absence of the clauses, ex ante investment would be distorted by unconstrained renegotiation aimed at (i) precluding value-destroying ex post transfers, (ii) inducing value-increasing ex post investments, or (iii) precluding hold-out on value-increasing sales to a trade buyer or the IPO market. (JEL: G34) (c) 2007 by the European Economic Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Gilles Chemla & Michel A. Habib & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2007. "An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(1), pages 93-121, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:jeurec:v:5:y:2007:i:1:p:93-121
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Uwe Walz & Carsten Bienz, 2006. "Evolution of Decision and Control Rights in Venture Capital Contracts: An Empirical Analysis," FMG Discussion Papers dp585, Financial Markets Group.
    2. Peter Roosenboom, 2005. "Bargaining on Board Structure at the Initial Public Offering," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 9(2), pages 171-198, June.
    3. Chemla, Gilles & de Bettignies, Jean-Etienne, 2003. "Corporate Venture Capital: The Upside of Failure and Competition for Talent," CEPR Discussion Papers 4139, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Patrick Herbst & Uwe Walz, 2017. "The Design of Vertical R&D Collaborations," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 84(333), pages 54-77, January.
    5. Kaplan, Steven & Martel, Frederic & Strömberg, Per Johan, 2003. "How Do Legal Differences and Learning Affect Financial Contracts?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4161, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. repec:dau:papers:123456789/3031 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. repec:dau:papers:123456789/2940 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Kammerlander, Nadine & Sieger, Philipp & Voordeckers, Wim & Zellweger, Thomas, 2015. "Value creation in family firms: A model of fit," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 63-72.
    9. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5922 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Jean-Etienne de Bettignies & Gilles Chemla, 2008. "Corporate Venturing, Allocation of Talent, and Competition for Star Managers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(3), pages 505-521, March.
    11. Mariarosa Scarlata & Luisa Alemany, 2010. "Deal Structuring in Philanthropic Venture Capital Investments: Financing Instrument, Valuation and Covenants," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 95(2), pages 121-145, September.
    12. Bennedsen, Morten & Nielsen, Kasper Meisner & Nielsen, Thomas Vester, 2012. "Private contracting and corporate governance: Evidence from the provision of tag-along rights in Brazil," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 904-918.
    13. Daniel Ferreira & Emanuel Ornelas & John L. Turner, 2015. "Unbundling Ownership and Control," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 1-21, March.
    14. María-Angeles de Frutos & Thomas Kittsteiner, 2008. "Efficient partnership dissolution under buy-sell clauses," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(1), pages 184-198.
    15. Carvalhal, Andre, 2012. "Do shareholder agreements affect market valuation?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 919-933.
    16. repec:dau:papers:123456789/2941 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Roosenboom, Peter & Schramade, Willem, 2006. "The price of power: Valuing the controlling position of owner-managers in French IPO firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 270-295, January.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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