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Sequential Investments and Options to Own

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  • Klaus Schmidt

Abstract

Contingent ownership structures are prevalent in joint ventures. This paper offers an explanation based on the investment incentives provided by such an arrangement. We consider a hold-up problem in which two parties make relationship-specific investments sequentially in order to generate a joint surplus in the future. In our model, the following ownership structure implements first best investments: one party owns the firm initially, while the other party has the option to buy the firm at a set price at a later date. This result is robust to the possibility of renegotiation and uncertainty.

Suggested Citation

  • Klaus Schmidt, 1998. "Sequential Investments and Options to Own," CESifo Working Paper Series 160, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_160
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    File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/DocDL/ces_wp160.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Aaron S. Edlin & Benjamin E. Hermalin, 1997. "Contract Renegotiation in Agency Problems," NBER Working Papers 6086, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
    3. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
    4. Aghion, Philippe & Dewatripont, Mathias & Rey, Patrick, 1994. "Renegotiation Design with Unverifiable Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 257-282, March.
    5. Tai-Yeong Chung, 1991. "Incomplete Contracts, Specific Investments, and Risk Sharing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(5), pages 1031-1042.
    6. Hermalin, Benjamin E & Katz, Michael L, 1993. "Judicial Modification of Contracts between Sophisticated Parties: A More Complete View of Incomplete Contracts and Their Breach," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 230-255, October.
    7. Che, Y.K. & Hausch, D.B., 1996. "Cooperative Investments and the Value of Contracting: Coase vs Williamson," Working papers 9608, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
    8. Hart, Oliver, 1995. "Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288817.
    9. James Dearden & Dorothy Klotz, 1996. "Investment timing and efficiency in incomplete contracts," Review of Economic Design, Springer;Society for Economic Design, vol. 2(1), pages 369-378, December.
    10. Georg Noldeke & Klaus M. Schmidt, 1995. "Option Contracts and Renegotiation: A Solution to the Hold-Up Problem," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(2), pages 163-179, Summer.
    11. Gianni de Fraja, "undated". "After You Sir. Sequential Investment as a Solution to the Hold-Up Problem," Discussion Papers 95/23, Department of Economics, University of York.
    12. Joel S. Demski & David E.M. Sappington, 1991. "Resolving Double Moral Hazard Problems with Buyout Agreements," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(2), pages 232-240, Summer.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Thomas F. Hellmann & Veikko Thiele, 2012. "A Theory of the Firm based on Partner Displacement," NBER Working Papers 18495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Keuschnigg, Christian, 2003. "Optimal Public Policy for Venture Capital Backed Innovation," CEPR Discussion Papers 3850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Chongwoo Choe, 2006. "Optimal CEO Compensation: Some Equivalence Results," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(1), pages 171-201, January.
    4. Klaus M. Schmidt, 2003. "Convertible Securities and Venture Capital Finance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1139-1166, June.
    5. Felipe Balmaceda, 2005. "Firm-Sponsored General Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(1), pages 115-134, January.
    6. Ernst Fehr & Susanne Kremhelmer & Klaus M. Schmidt, 2008. "Fairness and the Optimal Allocation of Ownership Rights," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(531), pages 1262-1284, August.
    7. Chong-En Bai & Zhigang Tao & Changqi Wu, 2000. "Expropriation and Incentives for Team Production," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0807, Econometric Society.
    8. Matthew Ellman, 2006. "Specificity Revisited: The Role of Cross-Investments," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 234-257, April.
    9. Guriev Sergei, 2003. "Incomplete Contracts with Cross-Investments," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-32, August.
    10. Constanza M. Fosco Perea M, "undated". "Ambigüedad estratégica en contratos públicos de suministro," ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers inv127, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines.
    11. Josh Lerner & Ulrike Malmendier, 2010. "Contractibility and the Design of Research Agreements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 214-246, March.
    12. Hideshi Itoh & Hodaka Morita, 2015. "Formal Contracts, Relational Contracts, and the Threat-Point Effect," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 318-346, August.
    13. G. Geoffrey Booth & Orkunt M. Dalgic & Allan Young, 2004. "The Staging of Venture Equity Capital and Venture Capitalist Bargaining Power," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 9(3), pages 29-40, Fall.
    14. repec:bla:jecsur:v:31:y:2017:i:1:p:281-302 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Chong-En Bai & Zhigang Tao & Changqi Wu, 2004. "Revenue Sharing and Control Rights in Team Production: Theories and Evidence from Joint Ventures," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(2), pages 277-305, Summer.
    16. Bennett, John & Iossa, Elisabetta, 2006. "Building and managing facilities for public services," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(10-11), pages 2143-2160, November.
    17. HEGE, Ulrich & HAUSWALD, Robert, 2002. "Ownership and control in joint ventures: theory and evidence," HEC Research Papers Series 750, HEC Paris.
    18. Andrea L. Eisfeldt & Adriano A. Rampini, 2009. "Leasing, Ability to Repossess, and Debt Capacity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 1621-1657, April.

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