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La profesión docente en Colombia: normatividad, formación, selección y evaluación


  • María Figueroa
  • Sandra García
  • Darío Malonado
  • Catherine Rodríguez
  • Ana María Saavedra
  • Germán Vargas


Este documento presenta una revisión del estado de la profesión docente en Colombia. Las características de esta se organizan en cuatro ejes: i) la normatividad que rige la carrera docente; ii) la formación inicial de los maestros; iii) los procesos de selección y evaluación; y iv) la formación durante el servicio. El texto complementa la literatura existente en torno a los docentes, al hacer énfasis en los cambios recientes que se han dado a la organización de la carrera en el país. Respecto de los cambios muestra que, en general, estos han apuntado a alinear la carrera docente con las condiciones necesarias para mejorar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. En la mayoría de los casos el espíritu de los cambios es consistente con los avances recientes de la literatura internacional, que establece relaciones entre condiciones de la carrera docente y el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. En este sentido, los cambios han respondido a las necesidades de desarrollo del país como la elevación de los criterios de calidad en la formación inicial; la introducción de una nueva evaluación en servicio de los maestros que incluye una multiplicidad de instrumentos, como la observación en clase y la introducción de financiación para la formación en servicio y fortalecimiento de programas in situ. Sin embargo, la implementación de algunos de estos cambios ha sido lenta e incompleta. Este documento finaliza sugiriendo recomendaciones de política pública adicionales que complementen los avances recientes y se logre solucionar algunos problemas del estado de la profesión docente en Colombia. ***** This paper reviews the current state of the teaching profession in Colombia. The characteristics of the teaching profession are organized in four areas: i) regulations that govern the profession in its entirety; ii) teacher education programs; iii) teacher selection and evaluation processes; and iv) professional development for in-service teachers. This paper adds to the existing literature on the teaching profession by emphasizing recent changes that have occurred to the profession in Colombia. In general, these changes have aimed to align teacher training, professional development, and evaluation with the necessary conditions to improve student learning. In most cases, the spirit of the changes is consistent with recent advances in international educational research literature, which has delineated relationships between the conditions of the teaching career and student learning. In this sense, the changes have responded to the development needs of Colombia by elevating the quality of training criteria for pre-service teachers, introducing a new teacher evaluation system with multiple measures, such as classroom video, allocating funds for training in-service teachers, and enhancing on-site teacher training. However, the implementation of some of these changes has been slow and fragmented. This document ends with additional public policy recommendations that complement recent advances and work towards solving current problems for the teaching profession in Colombia.

Suggested Citation

  • María Figueroa & Sandra García & Darío Malonado & Catherine Rodríguez & Ana María Saavedra & Germán Vargas, 2018. "La profesión docente en Colombia: normatividad, formación, selección y evaluación," Documentos de trabajo 17641, Escuela de Gobierno - Universidad de los Andes.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000547:017641

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Darío Maldonado & Catherine Rodríguez, 2012. "Calidad de la Educación Básica y Media en Colombia: Diagnóstico y Propuestas," Documentos CEDE 10321, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
    2. David K. Evans & Anna Popova, 2016. "What Really Works to Improve Learning in Developing Countries? An Analysis of Divergent Findings in Systematic Reviews," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 31(2), pages 242-270.
    3. Jonah E. Rockoff, 2008. "Does Mentoring Reduce Turnover and Improve Skills of New Employees? Evidence from Teachers in New York City," NBER Working Papers 13868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Sandra García & Catherine Rodríguez & Fabio Sánchez & Juan Guillermo Bedoya, 2015. "La lotería de la cuna: La movilidad social a través de la educación en los municipios de Colombia," Documentos CEDE 13816, Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Economía, CEDE.
    5. Jonah E. Rockoff, 2004. "The Impact of Individual Teachers on Student Achievement: Evidence from Panel Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 247-252, May.
    6. Eric A. Hanushek & Steven G. Rivkin, 2010. "The Quality and Distribution of Teachers under the No Child Left Behind Act," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 133-150, Summer.
    7. Barrera-Osorio, Felipe & Linden, Leigh L., 2009. "The use and misuse of computers in education : evidence from a randomized experiment in Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4836, The World Bank.
    8. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575.
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    Cited by:

    1. Bruns, Barbara & Macdonald, Isabel Harbaugh & Schneider, Ben Ross, 2019. "The politics of quality reforms and the challenges for SDGs in education," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 27-38.

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