IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cir/cirwor/2007s-28.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Survival and Success of Canadian Penny Stock IPOs

Author

Listed:
  • Cécile Carpentier
  • Jean-Marc Suret

Abstract

We analyze the survival and success of a large sample of Canadian penny stock initial public offerings (IPOs), launched mostly by small and unprofitable firms from 1986 to 2003. The failure rate of these IPOs is lower than the one observed in the U.S. for larger IPOs, probably because of lax delisting rules and the market's capacity to refinance non-profitable firms. The survival of new issuers is significantly associated with their characteristics at the IPO and with the level of initial listing requirement they meet. The involvement of reputable intermediaries in the IPO process mitigates this effect. Success, estimated by the graduation to a senior exchange, is not linked to the financial conditions at the IPO. Overall, Canada seems to have developed a particular strategy to finance the growth of small firms even if the propensity to fail of firms listed at a pre-revenue stage is indeed very high. Nous analysons la survie et le succès d'un grand échantillon d'émissions initiales d'actions cotées en cents (les penny stocks), lancées majoritairement par des entreprises de petite taille non rentables entre 1986 et 2003. Le taux d'échec de ces émissions est moindre que celui observé aux États-Unis pour des opérations de plus grande taille. Ceci peut découler de règles de radiation plus souples et de la capacité du marché boursier canadien à refinancer des entreprises qui ne dégagent pas de bénéfices. La survie des émetteurs est significativement liée à leurs caractéristiques lors de l'émission initiale et au niveau de normes minimales qu'ils satisfont au moment de l'entrée en Bourse. L'implication d'intermédiaires de bonne réputation lors de l'émission modère cet effet. Le taux de succès, défini ici comme l'inscription sur une Bourse de niveau supérieur, est peu lié aux caractéristiques financières qui prévalent lors de l'émission. Le Canada semble avoir développé une stratégie particulière pour financer des entreprises de petite taille mais la probabilité d'échec des entreprises qui entrent en Bourse avant de rapporter des revenus reste très importante.

Suggested Citation

  • Cécile Carpentier & Jean-Marc Suret, 2009. "The Survival and Success of Canadian Penny Stock IPOs," CIRANO Working Papers 2007s-28, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2007s-28
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2007s-28.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stavros Peristiani & Gijoon Hong, 2004. "Pre-IPO financial performance and aftermarket survival," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 10(Feb).
    2. Jay R. Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1795-1828, August.
    3. Laura Bottazzi & Marco da Rin, 2003. "Financing Entrepreneurial Firms in Europe: Facts, Issues, and Research Agenda," CESifo Working Paper Series 958, CESifo Group Munich.
    4. Cumming, Douglas J. & MacIntosh, Jeffrey G., 2001. "Venture capital investment duration in Canada and the United States," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4-5), pages 445-463, December.
    5. Gleason, Kimberly C. & Rosenthal, Leonard & Wiggins III, Roy A., 2005. "Backing into being public: an exploratory analysis of reverse takeovers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 54-79, December.
    6. Laura Bottazzi & Marco Da Rin, "undated". "Europe’s ‘New’ Stock Markets," Working Papers 218, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    7. Bharat A. Jain & Omesh Kini, 1999. "The Life Cycle of Initial Public Offering Firms," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(9-10), pages 1281-1307.
    8. N. Berger, Allen & F. Udell, Gregory, 1998. "The economics of small business finance: The roles of private equity and debt markets in the financial growth cycle," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 613-673, August.
    9. John A. Doukas & Halit Gonenc, 2005. "Long-term Performance of New Equity Issuers, Venture Capital and Reputation of Investment Bankers," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 34(1), pages 1-34, February.
    10. Alexander P. Ljungqvist & Tim Jenkinson & William J. Wilhelm, Jr., 2003. "Global Integration in Primary Equity Markets: The Role of U.S. Banks and U.S. Investors," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 63-99.
    11. Ritter, Jay R, 1991. " The Long-run Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 3-27, March.
    12. Chemmanur, Thomas J. & Paeglis, Imants, 2005. "Management quality, certification, and initial public offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 331-368, May.
    13. Elizabeth Demers & Philip Joos, 2007. "IPO Failure Risk," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 333-371, May.
    14. Mitsuru Mizuno, 2006. "The Development Of Initial Public Offering Markets For Emerging Companies In Japan," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(4), pages 489-503, December.
    15. Joseph Weber & Michael Willenborg, 2003. "Do Expert Informational Intermediaries Add Value? Evidence from Auditors in Microcap Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 681-720, September.
    16. Schultz, Paul, 1993. "Unit initial public offerings *1: A form of staged financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 199-229, October.
    17. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    18. Aggarwal, Reena & Angel, James J., 1999. "The rise and fall of the Amex Emerging Company Marketplace," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 257-289, May.
    19. François Derrien & Ambrus Kecskés, 2007. "The Initial Public Offerings of Listed Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 447-479, February.
    20. Bharat A. Jain & Omesh Kini, 2000. "Does the Presence of Venture Capitalists Improve the Survival Profile of IPO Firms?," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(9&10), pages 1139-1183.
    21. Ritter, Jay R., 2003. "Investment banking and securities issuance," Handbook of the Economics of Finance,in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 5, pages 255-306 Elsevier.
    22. Helwege, Jean & Liang, Nellie, 2004. "Initial Public Offerings in Hot and Cold Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(03), pages 541-569, September.
    23. Daniel J. Bradley & John W. Cooney, Jr. & Steven D. Dolvin & Bradford D. Jordan, 2006. "Penny Stock IPOs," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 35(1), Spring.
      • Daniel J. Bradley & John W. Cooney Jr. & Steven D. Dolvin & Bradford D. Jordan, 2006. "Penny Stock IPOs," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 35(1), pages 5-29, March.
    24. Carter, Richard B & Manaster, Steven, 1990. " Initial Public Offerings and Underwriter Reputation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1045-1067, September.
    25. Fernando, Chitru S. & Krishnamurthy, Srinivasan & Spindt, Paul A., 2004. "Are share price levels informative? Evidence from the ownership, pricing, turnover and performance of IPO firms," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(4), pages 377-403, October.
    26. Seguin, P. J. & Smoller, M. M., 1997. "Share price and mortality: An empirical evaluation of newly listed Nasdaq stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 333-363, September.
    27. Harjeet S. Bhabra & Richard H. Pettway, 2003. "IPO Prospectus Information and Subsequent Performance," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 369-397, August.
    28. Susan Belden & Robert Keeley & Robert Knapp, 2001. "Can venture capital-backed IPOs compete with seasoned public companies?," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 327-336, October.
    29. Rasch, Sebastian, 1994. "Special stock market segments for small company shares in Europe - What went wrong?," ZEW Discussion Papers 94-13, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    30. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
    31. Macey, Jonathan R. & O'Hara, Maureen, 2002. "The Economics of Stock Exchange Listing Fees and Listing Requirements," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 297-319, July.
    32. Hensler, Douglas A & Rutherford, Ronald C & Springer, Thomas M, 1997. "The Survival of Initial Public Offerings in the Aftermarket," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 20(1), pages 93-110, Spring.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Cécile Carpentier & Jean-François L’Her & Jean-Marc Suret, 2012. "Seasoned equity offerings by small and medium-sized enterprises," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 449-465, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    small business finance; initial public offering; survival; success; minimum listing requirements.; Financement des petites entreprises; émissions initiales d'actions; survie; succès; normes minimales d'entrée en Bourse.;

    JEL classification:

    • G38 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • K22 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Business and Securities Law

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2007s-28. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ciranca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.