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La pénurie de travailleurs qualifiés

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  • Claude Montmarquette
  • Laure Thomas

Abstract

La possibilité d'une pénurie de main-d'uvre qualifiée représenterait une menace à notre vitalité économique et à notre bien-être, en général. Faut-il réellement s'en inquiéter? D'où émane cette préoccupation? Comment expliquer les pénuries et minimiser leurs fréquences?S'il est possible d'observer à très court terme, une pénurie de main-d'uvre de travailleurs faiblement ou moyennement qualifiés, l'inquiétude associée au concept de pénurie concerne généralement la main-d'uvre qualifiée. Par définition, la main-d'uvre qualifiée nécessite une formation et une durée d'expérience de travail plus importantes que pour la main-d'uvre non qualifiée. De plus, le capital et les travailleurs non qualifiés sont généralement des substituts, tandis que, dans le cas de la main-d'uvre qualifiée, le capital et le travail sont complémentaires. C'est pourquoi il est difficile de résoudre rapidement certaines pénuries de travailleurs qualifiés. Les éléments de l'offre de la main-d'uvre qualifiée sont plus complexes que pour les autres types de main-d'uvre.Malgré certaines difficultés associées au risque d'investir en capital humain et devant l'incertitude des besoins futurs de main-d'uvre qualifiée et des lenteurs des ajustements du marché, l'essentiel de nos propos se résume à ceci : la pénurie se résorbe si on laisse les marchés concurrentiels opérer sans entraves. Intervenir pour des motivations politiques avec des solutions naïves ne règlera aucun problème de fond.Nous indiquons comment minimiser le problème de pénurie de main-d'uvre qui, à court terme, nous apparaît une situation relativement normale et non indûment préoccupante.Les cas particuliers des infirmières et des professeurs d'université, liés à la situation québécoise illustrent nos propos.

Suggested Citation

  • Claude Montmarquette & Laure Thomas, 2005. "La pénurie de travailleurs qualifiés," CIRANO Project Reports 2005rp-03, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2005rp-03
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    File URL: https://cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2005RP-03.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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